A “geopolítica infraestrutural” do conhecimento climático: o Modelo Brasileiro do Sistema Terrestre e a divisão Norte-Sul do conhecimento

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1590/15174522-0215102

Palavras-chave:

conhecimento em mudança climática, IPCC, modelagem climática, sul global.

Resumo

Este artigo examina como a geopolítica se insere nos esforços das nações do Sul de construção de novas infraestruturas de conhecimento climático. Para tanto, analisa-se a composição da base internacional de modelagem climática do Painel Intergovernamental sobre Mudanças Climáticas (IPCC), sob a perspectiva do Modelo Brasileiro do Sistema Terrestre (BESM) – projeto científico que colocou um país latino-americano, pela primeira vez, entre as bases globais de modelagem do IPCC. Argumenta-se que, para além da ideia de “globalismo infraestrutural” – processo histórico de cooperação científica global liderado por países desenvolvidos –, é preciso também compreender a “geopolítica infraestrutural” dos modelos climáticos. Este conceito procura descrever as ações dos países em desenvolvimento para minimizar o desequilíbrio da produção científica global sobre o tema do clima e a participação desses países na governança e na política climática global. Conclui-se que, a partir da análise da construção do BESM, os investimentos nacionais em modelagem global visaram alcançar uma condição de soberania científica que está estreitamente ligada a uma noção de soberania política do Estado-nação no regime internacional de mudanças climáticas.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Jean Carlos Hochsprung Miguel, Universidade Federal de São Paulo

PhD in Scientific and Technological Policy from the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

Martin Mahony, Universidade de East Anglia

PhD in Geography, Lecturer in Human Geography at the School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norfolk, United Kingdom.

Marko Synésio Alves Monteiro, Universidade Estadual de Campinas

Associate professor at the Department of Science and Technological Policy in the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), São Paulo, Brazil.

Referências

ABESSA, Denis; FAMÁ, Ana; BURUAEM, Lucas. The systematic dismantling of Brazilian environmental laws risks losses on all fronts. Nature Ecology & Evolution, v. 3, n. 4, p. 510-511, 2019. doi: 10.1038/s41559-019-0855-9

ANDRY, Barry. Material politics: disputes along the pipeline. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons, 2013.

ANGELO, Claudio. Brazil’s government freezes nearly half of its science spending. Nature, n. 568, p. 155-156, 2019. doi: 10.1038/d41586-019-01079-9

ANGELO, Claudio. País não pode abrir mão de supercomputador. Observatório do Clima [online]. URL: http://www.observatoriodoclima.eco.br/pais-nao-pode-abrir-mao- de-supercomputador/.

BRASIL - Governo Federal. Plano Nacional sobre Mudanças do Clima – PNMC - Brasil. Decreto nº 6.263, de 21 de novembro de 2007. Comitê Interministerial sobre Mudanças do Clima. Brasília: Ministério do Meio Ambiente, 2008. URL: http://www.mma.gov.br/estruturas/smcq_climaticas/_arquivos/plano_nacional_mudanca_clima.pdf.

CHARMAZ, Kathy. Constructing grounded theory: a practical guide through qualitative analysis. London: SAGE Publications, 2006.

DALBY, Simon. The geopolitics of climate change. Political Geography, v. 37, p. 38–47, Nov. 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.polgeo.2013.09.004

DEMERITT, David. The construction of global warming and the politics of science. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, v. 91, n. 2, p. 301-337, June. 2001. URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3651262

DUARTE, Tiago. Mecanismos de Homogenização da Atividade Científica: O caso da ciência de mudanças climáticas. Sociedade e Estado, v. 31, n. 3, p. 821-843, 2016. doi: 10.1590/s0102-69922016.00030012

EDWARDS, Paul. A vast machine: computer models, climate data, and the politics of global warming. Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2010.

EDWARDS, P. Meteorology as Infrastructural Globalism. The History of Science,

Osiris, v. 21, n. 1, p. 229-250, 2006. doi: 10.1086/507143

ELDEN, Stuart. Secure the volume: vertical geopolitics and the depth of power. Political Geography, v. 34, p. 35–51, 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.polgeo.2012.12.009

ELZINGA, Aant. Science as the continuation of politics by other means. In: BRANTE, Thomas; FULLER, Steve; LYNCH, William. (Eds.) Controversial science: from content to contention. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993. p.127-152.

ESCOBAR, Herton. Brasil prepara seu 1º modelo climático para o IPCC. Portal de Notícias Estadão Ciência. URL: http://ciencia.estadao.com.br/blogs/herton-escobar/brasil-prepara-seu-1o-modelo-climatico-para-o-ipcc/

EYRING, Veronica et al. Overview of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) experimental design and organization. Geoscientific Model Development Discussion, v. 9, p. 1937-1958, 2016. doi: 10.5194/gmd-9-1937-2016

FLEMING, James R. Inventing the atmospheric science: Bjerknes, Rossby, Wexler, and the foundations of modern meteorology. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2016.

HARDING, Sandra. Objectivity and diversity: another logic scientific research. Chicago e London: The University of Chicago Press, 2015.

HARPER, C. Kristine. Weather by the numbers. The genesis of modern meteorology. Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2008.

HULME, Mike. How Climate Models Gain and Exercise Authority. In: HASTRUP, Kirsten; SKRYDSTRUP, Martin (Eds.) The social life of climate change models: antecipating nature. New York: Routledge, 2013. p. 30-44.

HULME, Mike; MAHONY, Martin. Climate change: what do we know about the IPCC? Progress in Physical Geography, v. 34, n. 5, p. 705-718, 2010. doi: 10.1177/0309133310373719

IPCC. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Principles Governing IPCC Work, 2013. Available at: https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/ipcc-principles/ipcc-principles.pdf.

JACKSON, Steven J.; EDWARDS, Paul N.; BOWKER, Geoffrey C.; KNOBEL, Cory P. Understanding Infrastructures: History, Heuristics, and Cyberinfrastrutures Policy. First Monday. Journal on the Internet, v. 12, n. 6, June 2007. URL: http://www.firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1904/1786.

JANKOVIC, Vladimir. Science migrations: mesoscale weather prediction from Belgrade to Washington, 1970-2000. Social Studies of Science, v. 34, n. 1, p.45-75, 2004. doi: 10.1177/0306312704040490

JENSEN, Casper B.; WINTHEREIK, Britt R. Monitoring movements in development aid: recursive partnerships and infrastructures. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2013.

JOSHI, Shangrila. Understanding India’s representation of North-South climate politics. Global Environmental Change, v. 13, n. 2, p.128-147, 2013. doi: 10.1162/GLEP_a_00170

KANDLIKAR, Milind; SAGAR, Ambuj. Climate change research and analysis in India: an integrated assessment of a South–North divide. Global Environmental Change, v. 9, n. 2, p.119–138, 1999. doi: 10.1016/S0959-3780(98)00033-8

KARLSSON, Sylvia; SREBOTNJAK, Tanja; GONZALES, Patricia. Understanding the North–South knowledge divide and its implications for policy: a quantitative analysis of the generation of scientific knowledge in the environmental sciences. Environmental Science and Policy, v. 10, n. 7-8, p. 668–684, 2007. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2007.04.001

KREIMER, Pablo. Emergencia y desarrollo de campos científicos en la periferia: Argentina, segunda mitad del Siglo XX. Buenos Aires: CLACSO, 2016.

LAHSEN,Myanna. Brazilian climate epistemerss’ multiple epistemes: exploration of shared meaning, diverse identities and geopolitics in global change science. Discussion Paper, 2002-01. Cambridge, MA: Environment and Natural Resources Program, Belfer Center, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 2002.

LAHSEN, Myanna. Transnational locals: Brazilian experiences of the climate regime. In: JASANOFF, Sheila; MARTELLO, Marybeth (Eds.) Earthly politics: local and global in environmental governance. Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2004. p. 151-172.

LAHSEN, Myanna. Seductive simulations? Uncertainty distribution around climate models. Social Studies of Science, v. 35, n. 6, p. 895-922, 2005. URL: www.jstor.org/stable/25046680

LAHSEN, Myanna. Trust through participation? Problems of knowledge in climate decision making. In: PETTENGER, Mary (Ed.) The social construction of climate change. Hampshire: Ashgate, 2007. p. 173–196.

MAC LEOD, Roy. On visiting the ‘moving metropolis’: reflections on the architecture of imperial science. Historical Records of Australian Science, v. 5, n. 3, p.1-16, 1982. doi: 10.1071/HR9820530001

MAHONY, Martin. The predictive state: science, territory and the future of the Indian climate. Social Studies of Science, v. 44, n. 1, p. 109-133, 2014. doi: 10.1177/0306312713501407

MAHONY, Martin; HULME, Mike. Model migration: mobility and boundary crossing in regional climate prediction. Transaction of the Institute of British Geographers, v. 37, n. 2, p. 197-211, 2012. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-5661.2011.00473.x

MEEHL, Gerald; BOER, George; COVEY, Curt; LATIF, Mojib; STOUFFER, Ronald. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). Bulletin of American Meteorological Society, v. 81, n. 2, p. 313–318, 2000.

MIGUEL, Jean C. H. Políticas e infraestruturas das ciências atmosféricas: um estudo social da modelagem climática no INPE. Tese [Doutorado em Política Científica e Tecnológica]. Instituto de Geociências, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 2017.

MIGUEL, Jean C. H.; ESCADA, Paulo; MONTEIRO, Marko. Meteorologia no Brasil: a coprodução do conhecimento e das políticas científicas na criação do CPTEC. Revista Brasileira de História da Ciência, v. 9, n. 1, p. 36-60, 2016.

MILLER, Clark. Climate science and the making of a global political order. In: JASANOFF, Sheila (Ed.) States of knowledge: the co-production of science and social order. London: Routledge, 2004. p. 46-66.

MILLER, Clark A. Scientific internationalism in American foreign policy: the case of meteorology, 1947-1958. In: MILLER, Clark A.; EDWARDs, Paul N. Changing the Atmosphere: expert knowledge and environmental governance. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2001. p. 168-218.

MILLER, Clark A.; EDWARDs, Paul N. Changing the Atmosphere: expert knowledge and environmental governance. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2001.

MONTEIRO, Marko S. A. Modelling Amazonian environments: some considerations on the science-policy interface in Brazil. Paper Presented at 4S-ESOCITE Joint Meeting. Buenos Aires, 2014.

MONTEIRO, Marko S. A. Construindo imagens e territórios: pensando a visualidade e a materialidade do sensoriamento remoto. História, Ciências, Saúde – Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, v. 22, n. 2, p. 577-591, 2015. doi: 10.1590/S0104-59702015000200006

MONTEIRO, Marko S. A.; RAJÃO, Raoni. Scientists as citizens and knowers in the detection of deforestation in the Amazon. Social Studies of Science, v. 47, n. 4, p. 466-484, 2017. doi: 10.1177/0306312716679746

MOREIRA, Helena M.; RIBEIRO, Wagner C. A China na ordem ambiental internacional das mudanças climáticas. Estudos Avançados, v. 30, n. 87, p. 213-234, 2016. doi: 10.1590/S0103-40142016.30870013

O'LEAR, Shannon; DALBY, Simon. Reframing Climate Change. Constructing Ecological Geopolitics. London: Routledge, 2015.

PETHERICK, Anna. High hopes for Brazilian science. Nature, n. 465, p.674-675, 9 jun. 2010. doi:10.1038/465674a

SHACKLEY, Simon; WYNNE, Brian. Representing uncertainty in global climate change science policy: boundary-ordering devices and authority. Science, Technology & Human Values, v. 21, n. 3, p. 275-302, 1996. URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/689709

SHACKLEY, Simon. Trust in models? The mediating and transformative role of computer models in environmental discourse. In: REDCLIFT, Michael; WOODGATE, Graham (Eds). The international handbook of environmental sociology. London: Edward Elger Puplishing, 1997. pp. 237-260.

SHACKLEY, Simon; YOUNG, Peter; PARKINSON, Stuart; WYNNE, Brian. Uncertainty, complexity and concepts of good science in climate change modelling: are CGMs the best tools? Climate Change, v. 38, n. 2, p. 159-205, 1998. doi: 10.1023/A:100531010

SHACKLEY, Simon. Epistemic lifestyles in climate change modelling. In: MILLER, Clark; EDWARDS, Paul (Eds.) Changing the atmosphere. Expert knowledge environmental governance. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2001. p.107-133.

SUDENBERG, Mikaela. Mobilizing networks. researcher roles in atmospheric science. Acta Sociologica, v. 50, n. 3, p. 271-282, 2007a. doi: 10.1177/0001699307080932

SUDENBERG, Mikaela. Parameterizations as boundary objects on the climate arena. Social Studies of Science, v. 37, n. 3, p. 473-488, 2007b. doi: 10.1177/0306312706075330

TAYLOR, Karl. Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Presented to the WCRP Working Group on Coupled Modelling, Hamburg, Germany, 2012. URL: http://www.wcrp-climate.org/wgcm/WGCM16/Taylor_CMIP5Update_WGCM16.pdf.

TOLLEFSON, Jeff. Brazil's climate modellers are set to go global. Nature, n. 468, p. 20, 04 nov. 2010. doi:10.1038/468020a

VIOLA, Eduardo. O regime internacional de mudanças climáticas. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais, v. 17, n. 50, p. 25-46, 2002. doi: 10.1590/S0102-69092002000300003

VIOLA, Eduardo; FRANCHINI, Matias. Brasil na Governança Global do Clima, 2005-2012; a luta entre conservadores e reformistas. Contexto Internacional, v. 35, n. 1, p. 43-76, 2013. doi: 10.1590/S0102-85292013000100002.

WALKER, Dawn; NOST, Eric; LEMELIN, Aaron; LAVE, Rebecca; DILLON, Lindsey. Practicing environmental data justice: from data rescue to data together. Geo: Geography and Environment, v. 5, n. 2, p. 1-14, 2018. doi: 10.1002/geo2.61

WATTS, Jonathan. Brazil's new foreign minister believes climate change is a Marxist plot. The Guardian 11/08/2018. URL: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/nov/15/brazil-foreign-minister-ernesto-araujo-climate-change-marxist-plot.

WEART, Spencer. The development of general circulation models of climate. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics. Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, v. 41, n. 3, p. 208-217, 2010. doi: 10.1016/j.shpsb.2010.06.002

WYNNE, Brian. SSK's identity parade: signing-up off-and-on. Social Studies of Science, v. 26, n. 2, p. 357-91, 1996. doi: 10.1177/030631296026002007

WYNNE, Brian. Strange weather, again: climate science as political art. Theory, Culture & Society, v. 27, n. 2-3, p. 289-305, 2010. doi: 10.1177/0263276410361499

WHITEHEAD, Mark; JONES, Rhys; JONES, Martin. The nature of the state: excavating the political ecologies of the modern state. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007

Publicado

2019-08-20

Como Citar

MIGUEL, J. C. H.; MAHONY, M.; MONTEIRO, M. S. A. A “geopolítica infraestrutural” do conhecimento climático: o Modelo Brasileiro do Sistema Terrestre e a divisão Norte-Sul do conhecimento. Sociologias, [S. l.], v. 21, n. 51, 2019. DOI: 10.1590/15174522-0215102. Disponível em: https://seer.ufrgs.br/index.php/sociologias/article/view/90340. Acesso em: 25 set. 2022.