Sedation Effect of Acepromazine and Butorphanol in Dopplervelocimetric Parameters in Great Abdominal Arteries and Femoral Artery in Dogs
Keywords:acepromazine, buthorphanol, arteries, Doppler ultrasound.
Background: Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that allows vascular anatomical and dynamics evaluation. Each artery has flow velocity profiles and different Doppler spectrum. The purpose of this study was to determine if sedation with acepromazine and butorphanol in dogs alters Doppler velocimetric values and diameter from abdominal aorta, celiac, mesenteric cranial, renal, external iliac and femoral arteries of healthy dogs.
Materials, Methods & Results: Twenty healthy female dogs, aged 1 to 5 years, with body weight ranging from 10 to 25 kg, were evaluated with Doppler ultrasound in order to obtain: peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, time average medium velocity, time average maximum velocity, resistive index, pulsatility index, and diameter from abdominal aorta, celiac, mesenteric cranial, renal, external iliac and femoral arteries. The same animals were sedated with acepromazine (0.02 mg/kg) and buthorphanol (0.4 mg/kg) and the same parameters were reevaluated. The heart rate was also measured. The study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of UFRGS, under the 25552 protocol, and the owners signed an informed consent form. Statistical analysis was performed with pared t test.The heart rate was statistically significant different, 98 ± 20.13 bpm before and 79 ± 17.74 after sedation. The exam was done before and after sedation in all selected vessels, except the celiac and cranial mesenteric artery, which were possible only in 35% and 45% respectively. All measured arteries exhibit difference in at least two of the analyzed parameters, except femoral artery, that only diameter was different.
Discussion: Each vessel was selected because of its importance, and each of them has its own characteristic waveform. Changes in patterns of flow velocity of the celiac artery and mesenteric can help to determine the physiological condition of the gastrointestinal tract; in the case of renal arteries are associated with diseases involving parenchyma and; thrombosis in the aorta and the iliac and femoral arteries may be difficult to evaluate without the Doppler image. Examination of the AC and AMC before and after sedation not could be performed in all animals, maybe because the present work was carried out with only fasting requirement, without using dimethicone, and one of the difficulties encountered was the presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract. Another factor that may have contributed to these findings is that the acute stress of containment and other environmental factors can cause release of vasopressin and leads to vasoconstriction of the splanchnic vascular bed. The dopplervelocimetric data found in celiac, mesenteric cranial, renal and femoral arteries in non-sedated animals was similar to what was described by other authors. Although all dogs demonstrated relaxation during the exam, this sedation protocol alters the values found with Doppler ultrasound in the selected vessels, except femoral artery, which caused only increase of diameter. The Doppler differences found can be a consequence of a decrease in heart rate associated with longer cycle length, and therefore, larger diastolic volume with vessels that stayed with same diameter, or in case of caudal abdominal aorta, that reduced the diameter. This study compared the dopplervelocimetric values to the ones described by other authors in non-sedated animals and demonstrated that although acepromazine and buthorphanol are a good option to sedate dogs to perform ultrasound exam, they alter the Doppler values from aorta abdominal, celiac, cranial mesenteric, renal, external iliac arteries and the femoral artery diameter.
Alvaides R.K., Neto F.J., Aguiar A.J., Campagnol D. & Steagall P.V. 2008. Sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of acepromazine or atropine given before dexmedetomidine in dogs. Veterinary Record. 162(26): 852-856.
Bell A.M., Auckburally A., Pawson P., Scott E.M. & Flaherty D. 2011. Two doses of dexmedetomidine in combination with buprenorphine for premedication in dogs; a comparison with acepromazine and buprenorphine. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 38(1): 15-23.
Biricik H.S., Sindak N., Orzturk A., Sahin T. & Camkerten I. 2010. The effect of xylazine on femoral arterial flow determined by Doppler sonography in dogs. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 9(1): 47-48.
Bruet V., Brune J., Pastor A., Imparato L., Roussel A., Boudeau P. & Desfontis J.C. 2013. Gastrointestinal hemodynamics in dogs with nonfood induced atopic dermatites. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 27(3): 451-455.
Carvalho C.F., Chammas M.C., Sterman F.A., Barros N. & Cerri G.G. 2008. Ultra-sonografia dúplex-Doppler na avaliação morfológica e hemodinâmica das artérias aorta e mesentérica cranial em cães. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science. 45(1): 24-31.
Carvalho C.F. & Tannouz V.G.S. 2009. Principais aplicações do ultrassom Doppler em medicina interna. In: Carvalho C.F. (Ed). Ultrassonografia Doppler em pequenos animais. São Paulo: Rocca, pp.31-71.
Cornick J.L. & Harsfield S.M. 1992. Cardiopulmonary and behavioral effects of combinations of acepromazine butorphanol and acepromazine oxymorphone in dogs. Journal of American Veterinary Medicine Association. 200(12): 1952-1956.
Gaschen L. & Kircher P. 2007. Two-Dimensional grayscale ultrasound and spectral Doppler waveform evaluation of dogs with chronic enteropaties. Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice. 22(3): 122-127.
Gaschen L., Kircher P., Lang J., Gaschen F., Allenspach K. & Grone A. 2005. Pattern recognition and feature extraction of canine celiac and cranial mesenteric arterial waveforms: normal versus chronic enteropathy – a pilot study. Veterinary Journal. 169(2): 242-250.
Jarreta G.B., Paiva C.A., Dada N.L. & Williams J. 2010. Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of the external iliac and femoral arteries in dogs and cats. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound. 51(2): 191.
Kaya M., Peckan Z., Sen Y., Boztok B., Senel O.O. & Bumin A. 2011. Effects of short-acting anaesthetics on haemodynamic function as determined by Doppler ultrasonography in rabbits. Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 17(5): 713-719.
Kircher P., Lang J., Blum J., Gaschen F., Doherr M., Sieber C. & Gaschen L. 2003. Influence of food composition on splanchnic blood flow during digestion in unsedated normal dogs: a Doppler study. Veterinary Journal. 166(3): 265-272.
Koma L.M., Kirberger R.M. & Scholtz L. 2006. Doppler ultrasonographic in the canine kidney during normovolemic anemia. Research in Veterinary Science. 80(1): 96-102.
Lee K., Choi M., Yoon J. & Jung J. 2004. Spectral waveform analysis of major arteries in conscious dogs by Doppler ultrasonography. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound. 45(2): 166-171.
Masoudifard M., Vajhi A., Kavari A. & Haghighi M.H.B. 2006. Normal color and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography of femoral and axillary arteries in dogs. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery. 1(2): 43-49.
Melo M.B., Veado J.C.C., Silva E.F., Moreira S.M. & Passos L.M.F. 2006. Dopplerfluxometria das artérias renais: valores normais das velocidades sistólica e diastólica e do índice resistivo nas artérias renais principais. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia. 58(4): 691-693.
Mino N., Espino L. & Barreiro A. 2008. Effects of medetomidine on Doppler variables of major abdominal arteries in normal dogs. Veterinary Research Communications. 32(2): 175-186.
Mino N., Espino L., Suaréz M., Santamarina G. & Barriero A. 2004. Estudio de la aorta abdominal mediante Doppler espectral pulsado en perros. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria. 36(1): 87-92.
Monteiro E.R., Junior A.R., Assis H.M., Campagnol D. & Quitzan J.G. 2009. Comparative study on the sedative effects of morphine, methadone, butorphanol or tramadol, in combination with acepromazine, in dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 36(1): 25-33.
Nogueira R.B. & Muzzi R.A. 2010. Evaluation of aging on muscle blood flow in conscious healthy dogs by duplex Doppler ultrasonography. Veterinary Research Communications. 34(4): 307-314.
Nogueira R.B., Palacio M.J.F., López J.T. & Resende R.M. 2012. Effects of sedation with acepromazine maleate and buprenorphine hydrochloride on femoral artery blood flow in healthy dogs. Research in Veterinary Science. 93(2): 98992.
Novellas R., Goupegui R.R. & Espada Y. 2007. Effects of sedation with midazolam and butorphanol on resistive and pulsatility indices in healthy dogs. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound. 48(3): 276-280.
Reis G.F., Nogueira R.B., Silva A.C., Oberlender G., Muzzi R.A.L. & Mantovani M.M. 2014. Spectral analysis of femoral artery blood flow waveforms of conscious domestic cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 16(12): 972-978.
Riesen S., Schimid V., Gaschen L., Busato A. & Lang J. 2002. Doppler measurement of splanchnic blood flow during digestion in unsedated normal dogs. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound. 43(6): 554-560.
Santana E.J.M, Beserra P.S., Brito A.B., Miranda S.A., Nikolak E. & Domingues S.F.S. 2009. Triplex Doppler da artéria renal e a relação entre a ecobiometria dos rins com a distância atlanto-coccígea e altura em Canis familiaris. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 29(10): 809-815.
Santos P.S.P., Castro M.P., Nogueira G.M., Duarte C.A., Moraes P.C., Fialho S.S., Araújo M.A. & Ferreira W.L. 2010. Eletrocardiografia, sedação e qualidade de recuperação do butorfanol ou buprenorfina em cães pré-tratados pela acepromazina. Veterinaria e Zootecnia. 17(3): 367-377.
Schnellbacher R. 2010. Butorphanol. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine. 19(2): 192-195.
Steinbacher R. & Dorfelt R. 2013. Anaesthesia in dogs and cats with cardiac disease – An impossible endeavour or a challenge with manageable risk. European Journal of Companion Animal Practice. 23(1): 4-22.
Vettorato E. & Bacco S. 2011. A comparison of the sedative and analgesic properties of pethidine (meperidine) and butorphanol in dogs. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 52(8): 426-432.
How to Cite
This journal provides open access to all of its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Such access is associated with increased readership and increased citation of an author's work. For more information on this approach, see the Public Knowledge Project and Directory of Open Access Journals.
We define open access journals as journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access. From the BOAI definition of "open access" we take the right of users to "read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles" as mandatory for a journal to be included in the directory.
La Red y Portal Iberoamericano de Revistas Científicas de Veterinaria de Libre Acceso reúne a las principales publicaciones científicas editadas en España, Portugal, Latino América y otros países del ámbito latino