Systolic Blood Pressure in Anesthetized Dogs - Agreement between Measurements by Two Noninvasive Monitors
Background: The oscillometric monitor is a noninvasive method used for measuring blood pressure in dogs and cats. Despite widely used, there is a large variability in the accuracy of oscillometric monitors, which may also be influenced by the location of the blood pressure cuff. The Doppler ultrasound is another non-invasive method that was shown to measure blood pressure with good accuracy and precision in small animals. The present study aimed to determine the agreement between systolic arterial pressure (SAP) measured by the Prolife P12 oscillometric monitor with two cuff locations and the Doppler ultrasound in anesthetized dogs.
Materials, Methods & Results: Dogs scheduled for routine anesthetic procedures were included in the study, which was carried out in two phases. In Phase 1, SAP values measured by the Doppler were compared with those measured by the Prolife P12 monitor with the cuff placed at the thoracic limb for both methods. In Phase 2, SAP values measured by the Doppler were compared with those measured by the Prolife P12 monitor, with the cuff placed at the thoracic limb for the Doppler and at the base of the tail for the P12. The cuff width corresponded to approximately 40% of limb or tail circumference. On all occasions, three consecutive measurements of SAP were recorded, followed by a single measurement of SAP by the P12, and then other three measurements were performed with the Doppler. The arithmetic mean of the six SAP measurements with the Doppler was compared with the SAP value measured by the P12 monitor (paired measurements). Agreement between SAP values measured by the Doppler and the P12 monitor was analyzed by the Bland Altman method for calculation of the bias (Doppler – P12) and standard deviation (SD) of the bias. The percentages of differences between the methods with an error ≤ 10 mmHg and ≤ 20 mmHg and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were also calculated. Results were compared with the criteria from the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) for validation of noninvasive blood pressure methods. A total of 33 dogs were included in Phase 1 and 15 were included in Phase 2. During Phases 1 and 2, 179 and 87 paired measurements were recorded, respectively. Most of the measurements were recorded during normotension (SAP = 90-130 mmHg): 113/179 in Phase 1 and 52/87 in Phase 2. The bias (± SD) for Phases 1 and 2 were -2.7 ± 14.1 mmHg and 7.2 ± 25.8 mmHg. The percentages of differences ≤ 10 mmHg and ≤ 20 mmHg were: Phase 1, 61% and 83%; Phase 2, 41% and 70%. Correlation coefficients were 0.81 and 0.67 for Phases 1 and 2, respectively. According to the ACVIM criteria, maximum values accepted for bias are 10 ± 15 mmHg, the percentages of differences ≤ 10 mmHg and ≤ 20 mmHg should be ³ 50% and ³ 80%, respectively, and the correlation coefficient should be ³ 0.9.
Discussion: When the blood pressure cuff was placed at the thoracic limb, SAP values measured by the P12 monitor met most of the ACVIM criteria, demonstrating good agreement with SAP values measured by the Doppler. The only requirement not met was the correlation coefficient which was 0.81 whereas the recommended is ³ 0.9. Conversely, when the cuff was placed at the base of the tail, SAP values measured by the P12 monitor did not meet most of the ACVIM criteria indicating that, in anesthetized dogs, SAP measurements with the P12 monitor should be performed with the cuff placed at the thoracic limb. One limitation of this study was that most measurements fell in the normotensive range and the results should not be extrapolated for hypotensive and hypertensive conditions. In conclusion, the Prolife P12 oscillometric monitor demonstrated good agreement with SAP values measured by the Doppler and provides acceptable values in normotensive anesthetized dogs.
Keywords: arterial blood pressure, nonivasive blood pressure, anesthetic monitoring.
Título: Pressão arterial sistólica em cães anestesiados - concordância entre mensurações por dois métodos não invasivos
Descritores: pressão arterial, pressão arterial não invasiva, monitoração anestésica.
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