Oral Conditions of Chronic Cardiac Patients

Jasper da Silva Schütz, Manuela Furtado Flores, Márlon Munhoz Montenegro, Mariana Vargas Furtado, Carisi Anne Polanczyc, Alex Nogueira Haas, Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing

Abstract


Aim: Describe the oral health condition and oral health related behavioral habits of individuals with chronic coronary artery disease that have been followed in a cardiologic unit in the University Hospital of Porto Alegre. Materials and Methods: 100 consecutive patients that frequented the unit were evaluated between June 2011 and March 2012. Demographics, socioeconomic and behavioral data were obtained from all participants. An oral examination with the following variables was performed: visible plaque and gingival bleeding indexes, gingival recession (GR), periodontal probing depth (PPD), BOP, clinical attachment loss derived by the sum of GR and PPD, and DMFT. Results: The majority of individuals were from male gender and were over 60 years of age. Approximately half of the individuals were former smokers. More than three quarters of the sample reported to have irregular dental visits. The parameters related to the supragingival biofilm presented high means for plaque and gingival bleeding indexes equalig 68% and 47% respectively. More than half of the examined teeth presented PPD ≥4 mm, and subgingival bleeding was present in approximately three quarters of the examined sites. Most of the examined teeth presented CAL ≥6 mm. The mean tooth loss in the individuals of the present study was 13.2. Mean DMFT was 10.9. Conclusion: The present sample of chronic cardiovascular disease patients presented oral health conditions compatible with the epidemiology of oral diseases most prevalent in the Brazilian population. However, this condition is alarming in a health context since tooth loss and periodontal diseases have been associated with higher risks of cardiovascular events.

Keywords


Periodontal disease. Cardiovascular disease.

References


AINAMO, J.; BAY, I. Problems and proposals for recording gingivitis and plaque. Int. Dent. J., London, v. 25, no. 4, p. 229-235, Dec. 1975.

BECK, J. D. et al. Periodontitis: a risk factor for coronary heart disease? Ann. Periodontol., Chicago, v. 3, no. 1, p. 127-141, July 1998.

BLAIZOT, A. et al. Periodontal diseases and cardiovascular events: meta-analysis of observational studies. Int. Dent. J., London, v. 59, no. 4, p. 197-209, Aug. 2009.

BRASIL. Ministério da Saúde. Projeto SB Brasil. Condições de saúde bucal da população brasileira. resultados principais. Brasília, 2003.

BUHLIN, K. et al. Oral health in women with coronary heart disease. J. Periodontol., Chicago, v. 76, no. 4, p. 544-550, Apr. 2005.

CHIU, B. Multiple infections in carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Am. Heart J., Saint Louis, v. 138, no. 5, Pt. 2, p. S534-536, Nov. 1999.

D'AIUTO, F.; READY, D.; TONETTI, M. S. Periodontal disease and C-reactive protein-associated cardiovascular risk. J. Periodontal Res., Copenhagen, v. 39, no. 4, p. 236-241, Aug. 2004.

DA SILVEIRA, A. D. et al. Association of anemia with clinical outcomes in stable coronary artery disease. Coron. Artery Dis., Philadelphia, v. 19, no. 1, p. 21-26, Feb. 2008.

DZUBUR, A.; DZUBUR, A.; MEKIC, M. Tobacco smoking and obesity as risk factors of polyvascular atherosclesrosis. Med. Arh., Sarajevo, v. 63, no. 2, p. 90-93, 2009.

ELTER, J. R. et al. Relationship of periodontal disease and tooth loss to prevalence of coronary heart disease. J. Periodontol., Chicago, v. 75, no. 6, p. 782-790, June 2004.

ERHARDT, L. Cigarette smoking: an undertreated risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis, Amsterdam, v. 205, no. 1, p. 23-32, 2009.

FADEL, H. T. et al. Caries risk and periodontitis in patients with coronary artery disease. J. Periodontol., Chicago, v. 82, no. 9, p. 1295-1303, Sept. 2011.

FRIEDEWALD, V. E. et al. The American Journal of Cardiology and Journal of Periodontology editors' consensus: periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Am. J. Cardiol., New York, v. 104, no. 1, p. 59-68, July 2009.

HOLMLUND, A.; HOLM, G.; LIND, L. Number of teeth as a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in a cohort of 7,674 subjects followed for 12 years. J. Periodontol., Chicago, v. 81, no. 6, p. 870-876, June 2010.

KANEKO, M.; YOSHIHARA, A.; MIYAZAKI, H. Relationship between root caries and cardiac dysrhythmia. Gerodontology, Oxford, v. 28, no. 4, p. 289-295, Dec. 2011.

KANNEL, W. B. Vital epidemiologic clues in heart failure. J. Clin. Epidemiol., Oxford, v. 53, no. 3, p. 229-235, 2000.

KAUR-KNUDSEN, D. et al. Nicotinic acetylcoline receptor polymorphism, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study. J. Clin. Oncol., New York, v. 29, no. 21, p. 2875-2882, July 2011.

LOCKHART, P. B. et al. Periodontal Disease and Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease: Does the Evidence Support an Independent Association: A Scientific Statament From the American Heart Association. Circulation, Dallas, v. 125, no. 20, p. 2520-2544, May 2012.

MATTILA, K. J. et al. Age, dental infections and coronary heart disease. J. Dent. Res., Chicago, v. 79, no. 2, p. 756-760, Feb. 2000.

MATTILA, K. J. et al. Association between dental health and acute myocardial infarction. B.M.J., London, v. 298, no. 6676, p. 779-781, Mar. 1989.

PIPE, A. L.; PAPADAKIS, S.; REID, R. D. The role of smoking cessation in the prevention of coronary artery disease. Curr. Atheroscler. Rep., Philadelphia, v. 12, no. 2, p. 145-150, Mar. 2010.

SHEIHAM, A.; WATT, R. G. The common risk factor approach: a rational basis for promoting oral health. Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol., Copenhagen, v. 28, no. 6, p. 399-406, Dec. 2000.

SPOSITO, A. C. et al. IV Brazilian Guideline for Dyslipidemia and Atherosclerosis prevention: Department of Atherosclerosis of Brazilian Society of Cardiology. Arq. Bras. Cardiol., São Paulo, v. 88 Suppl. 1, p. 2-19, Apr. 2007.

SUSIN, C. et al. Periodontal attachment loss in an urban population of Brazilian adults: effect of demographic, behavioral, and environmental risk indicators. J. Periodontol., Chicago, v. 75, no. 7, p. 1033-1044, July 2004.

SUSIN, C. et al. Tooth loss and associated risk indicators in an adult urban population from south Brazil. Acta Odontol. Scand., Stockholm, v. 63, no. 2, p. 85-93, Apr. 2005.

TONETTI, M. S. et al. Advances in the progression of periodontitis and proposal of definitions of a periodontitis case and disease progression for use in risk factor research - Group C Consensus report of the 5th European workshop in periodontology. J. Clin. Periodontol., Copenhagen, v. 32, Suppl. 6, p. 210-213, 2005.

TONETTI, M. S. et al. Treatment of periodontitis and endothelial function. N. Eng. J. Med., Boston, v. 356, no. 9, p. 911-920, Mar. 2007.

WU, T. et al. Examination of the relation between periodontal health status and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen. Am. J. Epidemiol., Baltimore, v. 151, no. 3, p. 273-282, Feb. 2000.

YAGI, H. et al. Difference in risk factors between acute coronary syndrome and stable angina pectoris in the Japanese: smoking as a crucial risk factor of acute coronary syndrome. J. Cardiol., Tokyo, v. 55, no. 3, p. 345-353, May 2010.

YLOSTALO, P. et al. Periodontal infection and subclinical atherosclerosis: the role of high-density lipoprotein as a modifying factor. J. Clin. Periodontol., Copenhagen, v. 37, no. 7, p. 617-624, May 2010.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/2177-0018.53809

Licença Creative Commons

e-ISSN 2177-0018 / ISSN 0566-1854.

descrição da foto descrição da foto descrição da foto descrição da foto descrição da foto descrição da foto descrição da fotodescrição da foto