Different techniques for the treatment of teeth with an incomplete root development and pulp necrosis: a systematic review

Camila Borba, Cíntia Jacobsen, Guilherme Pauletto, Carina Michelon, Mariana De Carlo Bello


Introduction: The objective of this systematic review was to compare the apexification techniques of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), with the pulp regeneration technique, using cohort studies, and non-randomized and randomized clinical trials. Methods: The methodology was based on electronic research in the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, SciELO, and LILACS. In addition, a manual search was carried out using the references that were listed in the articles found. Results: A total of 403 potentially eligible studies were found, with seven being included in the inclusion criteria of this systematic review. The seven studies involved a total of 312 teeth. The minimum time of a follow-up period was 12 months. The irrigation solution most used was sodium hypochlorite, for both of the apexification and revascularization techniques. The medication commonly chosen in the apexification groups was Ca(OH)2, with antibiotic triple paste in the revascularization groups. The clinical rate of success in the groups treated with revascularization varied from 76% to 100%, while in the groups treated with apexification, it ranged from 68% to 100%. Only two studies reached a success rate equal to 100%. Conclusions: Variable levels of evidence were observed in relation to the treatments. However, it was confirmed that revascularization is an excellent option since its outcomes produced a greater gain of thickness and root length, besides developing a decrease in the apical foramen.


Regenerative endodontics; Dental pulp necrosis; Apexification; Tooth apex; Periapical periodontitis

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