Aspectos Pedogeomorfológicos e Mineralógicos de uma Topossequência de Solos Gnáissicos no Complexo Bação – Quadrilátero Ferrífero, MG, Brasil
Palavras-chave:weathering, pedogeomorphology, slope processes
The mineralogical association of the weathering rocks and their pedogenic process is fundamental in order to understand the erosive susceptibility of the soils. The regolith of the southern area of the Complexo Bação, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, was developed from gneiss and has as its predominant characteristic a thick saprolite (around 20 m) overlaid by a solum (A + B horizons) with of less than 3 m thick. This thickness is much thinner than those that frequently occur in the gneiss regolith from tropical and intertropical regions. In the toposequence investigated, the upper slope profile is a cambic soil with a poorly developed B horizon and with many relictal weathered gneiss nodules at the bottom, closer to the saprolite. The mineralogical composition of this B horizon is mainly kaolinite, gibbsite, quartz, hematite and goethite and secondarily pseudomorphous feldspars. The middle slope profile is a latosol with a well developed and thick B horizon. The mineralogical composition of this B horizon is essentially formed by kaolinite, gibbsite, quartz, hematite and goethite. The lower slope profile is a cambic latosol with the presence of relictal gneiss nodules in the B horizon analogously to the B horizon from the upper slope profile. Their mineralogical composition are also similar. The pedogeomorphological evolution of the studied catenary sequence shows that the middle slope profile is allochthonous with an accumulation of colluvial materials that formed a well developed latosol B horizon without primary minerals. The source of the colluvial materials is the upper slope profile. In the lower slope segment the lack of colluvial material suggests a process of incision, with channel and perennial flows that were originated from the adjacent gullies. The incipient fluvial plain that was formed occurs in abrupt altimetric unconformity (declivity rupture) with the lower slope segment.