Aplicações de Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV) e Sistema de Energia Dispersiva (EDS) no Estudo de Gemas: exemplos brasileiros
Palavras-chave:gemology, scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive system, emerald, amethyst, agate, corundum, Brazil.
This paper presents results of SEM and EDS study in some Brazilian gemstones. Emerald from Campos Verdes (GO) contains several mineral inclusions as talc, dolomite, chromite, pyrite, magnetite, etc. Sylvite crystals was firstly identified by SEM/EDS. These salt inclusions suggest percolation of K-bearing fluids during emerald crystallization. Emerald from Campos Verdes present higher concentration of Cr+3 in the outer green zones than in the inner colourless zones, showing that ion is a chromophore in this gemstone. SEM and EDS results combined with optical microscopy analyses demonstrate that amethyst from Rio Grande do Sul State (RS) contain needle-like inclusions of goethite and not cacoxenite and rutile as suggest by other workers. By these techniques it was possible to identify pyrolusite and hollandite as late minerals inside agate and quartz geodes from RS. SEM and EDS data of corundum from Barra Velha (SC) show that silk effect is produced by diaspore inclusions. These techniques also reveal that the asterism in this corundum is produced by empty needle-like channels instead of the presence rutile inclusions as commonly observed in other worldwide deposits. Rounded zircon inclusions are common in corundum from Indaiá, Palmeiras, Caputira and Campo Belo (MG). Sillimanite and/or kyanite inclusions in corundum crystals of secondary deposits from Indaiá suggest a metamorphic origin to this gemstone. Corundum from Caputira also contains several rounded rutile inclusions, which are diagnostic for this occurrence.