Procesos de construcción identitaria y desafíos del antiesencialismo analítico / Identity construction processes and challenges of analytical anti-essentialism

Rita Sobczyk, Rosa Soriano-Miras, Andrés Caballero Calvo

Resumo


La comprensión de las tensiones sociales y políticas actuales genera un renovado interés en el estudio de los procesos de construcción identitaria. Sin embargo, el concepto de “identidad”, pese a su gran presencia en los discursos públicos, sigue siendo afectado por una profunda ambigüedad definitoria que limita su utilidad analítica y dificulta la transferencia de conocimiento de las investigaciones científicas que pudieran contribuir a debates informados en el ámbito público. El presente artículo, en base a la revisión de estudios existentes, aboga por la conceptualización de la identidad como un proceso multidimensional. La elaboración teórica sobre los mecanismos de construcción identitaria lleva a plantear cinco precauciones principales a considerar a la hora establecer relaciones entre las categorías identitarias y las pautas sociales. Se realiza una reflexión sobre la necesidad de combinar el antiesencialismo analítico con el estudio de los esencialismos cotidianos y sus implicaciones.

 

The understanding of present social and political tensions generates a renewed interest in the study of identity construction processes. However, the concept of “identity”, despite its wide presence in the public discourses, remains profoundly affected by ambiguity in terms of its definition. This limits its analytical usage and hinders the dissemination of the findings of scientific research that could contribute to creating informed debates in the public domain. The present paper, based on the review of existing studies, argues for a conceptualization of identity that defines it as a multidimensional process. The theoretical discussion concerning the main mechanisms of identity construction leads us to propose five precautions which should be taken into account when analysing the relation between identity categories and social patterns. Finally, we reflect on the necessity of combining analytical anti-essentialism with the study of everyday essentialisms and their implications.


Palavras-chave


Fronteras sociales, esencialismo, categorización, constructivismo, social boundaries, essentialism, categorization, constructivism

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/15174522-94228

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