Elective Laparoscopic Ovariectomy in Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus)
Background:In the last years the number of exotic company animals has been increased, and the demand for neutering services for these animals has become greater. By the author’s knowledge, there are no records of elective ovariectomy in domestic swine (Sus scrofa domesticus). The current paper reports a case of elective laparoscopic ovariectomy in a domestic swine (Sus scrofa domesticus).
Case:A 4-month-old domestic swine (Sus scrofa domesticus), weighing 45 kg was referred to elective video-laparoscopic ovariectomy at the Veterinary Clinics Hospital of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (HCV - UFRGS). Physical examination and laboratory tests, including hemogram and biochemistry (alanine aminotransferase - ALT, serum albumin and creatinine), were within normal range for the species. Ketamine hydrochloride (Cetamin®) 10 mg.kg-1, xylazine hydrochloride (Xilazin®) 2 mg.kg-1, and midazolam (Midazolam®) 0.5 mg.kg-1 were administered intramuscularly (IM) as pre-anesthetic medication. The anesthetic induction was performed with intravenous (IV) propofol (Propovan®) and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane (Isoforine®) diluted in O2 by a universal vaporizer with a partial gas rebreathing anesthetic system. Throughout the procedure, were monitoring constantly the invasive blood pressure (IBP), electrocardiogram (ECG) in lead II, peripheral arterial saturation with O2 (SpO2), end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (ETCO2), and esophageal temperature. The abdominal cavity was accessed through the insertion of three portals (one of 10 mm of diameter and other two of 5 mm of diameter). The cavity was inflated with medicinal CO2 until the pressure of 10 mmHg was achieved. The uterine body and ovaries were identified. The right ovary was suspended and, by a bipolar clamp, the ovarian vessels were occluded through electrocoagulation in three distinct locations with approximately 0,5 cm between themselves, and cut off. The right ovary was removed from the cavity. An identic maneuver was used for the realization of the surgical steps and removal of the left ovary. By the end, the cavity was deflated and the cannulas were removed. The abdominal wall was sutured with Sultan pattern with 3-0 polyglycolic acid thread, and the skin was sutured with simple interrupted suture with 3-0 nylon monofilament. The post-operative evaluations were subjective and fitting with the patient's behavior. The patient didn't show any clinical signs of pain, discomfort and returned to its usual eating habits on the second day after the procedure. No signs of infection, dehiscence, cicatrization retard or other complications were observed in the surgical wound. The stitches were removed after seven days.
Discussion: This case report shows the applicability of the video-laparoscopic ovariectomy technique by three portals in other species than dogs and cats, and serves as bibliographic support to the veterinary endosurgery field. Based on previous studies, it has been concluded that minimally invasive procedures represent the most beneficial sterilization methods to the patient due to its diagnostical and surgical capacity, as well as minor surgical trauma and shorter recovery time. The most common indication for the video-laparoscopic technique in veterinary routine is the elective sterilization. Pyometra, urinary incontinence and weight gain are complications that are not diagnosed more frequently after ovariectomy when compared to ovariohysterectomy. The laparoscopic ovariectomy is a viable technique to be applied to the swine, with the most difficult aspect being the anatomical peculiarities of the animal.
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