Hematological and Biochemical Evaluation of Dogs Undergoing Treatment with Veterinary Dental Gel for the Reduction of Plaque and Dental Calculus
Background: Periodontal disease affects a large proportion of dogs, causing both local and systemic symptoms. Several studies to identify alternative approaches for plaque reduction and removal have been conducted. Recently, Tropiclean Fresh Breath Clean Teeth Gel was introduced as an adjuvant to aid in plaque and calculus removal. This product is formulated using Aloe vera, green tea, and mint; however, studies on the toxic potential of this product have not been performed yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of Tropiclean Fresh Breath Clean Teeth Gel product on hematological and biochemical profiles in dogs undergoing 90-day treatment with the product.
Materials, Methods & Results: Per manufacturers' recommendation, the product should be used daily for 30 consecutive days, and subsequently, as maintenance at two to three times a week. In this study, 48 dogs with periodontal disease who received prolonged daily treatment for 90 consecutive days underwent hematological and biochemical evaluation. During the 90 days’ treatment duration, the animals were examined daily to identify the presence of adverse effects; and changes in halitosis were reported. At pre-treatment time-point, 5 mL of blood was collected via cephalic or jugular vein puncture in EDTA tubes for determining the complete blood count (CBC), and in tubes without EDTA for the urea, creatinine, and ALT levels; in addition, for comparison, blood was collected after 90 days’ treatment. At post-treatment time-point, the hematological and biochemical analyses showed significantly lower total leukocyte count as compared to that at pre-treatment (P < 0.01); comprising lower neutrophil count as the cell type involved (P < 0.05). The other parameters showed no statistically significant differences, demonstrating an absence of the products’ effect in terms of alteration of these profiles. All the dogs showed absence of apathy, vomiting, diarrhea, reduced appetite, or abnormalities in the mucosal color; in addition, all showed improvement in halitosis; of which, 39 showed improvement at 1 weeks’ treatment duration.
Discussion: In the present study, the analyzed parameters were used to determine the hemolysis, leukocytes or platelet abnormalities, renal function, and liver injury. The kidneys and liver are organs that are closely linked to the metabolism and excretion of drugs; hence, their functions are often altered by the toxic effects of some substances. Despite the reported toxicity of Aloe vera, in the present study, there were no changes in the hematological and biochemical parameters in the dogs undergoing treatment for 90 days, except for the reduced total leukocyte count with differential reduction of the neutrophil population, indicating the products’ safety at 90-days’ treatment duration. The hematological and biochemical results were corroborated by the result of the absence of abnormal clinical signs at daily evaluation. In the dogs included in this study, the reduction of halitosis was associated with the reduction of the leukocyte count related to the bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties of the active ingredients of Aloe vera such as opirocatechol, cinnamic acid, ascorbic acid, and p-coumaric acid which were reported in the field of dentistry; and with regard to green tea, catechin galatoepigallocatechin (EgCG) may be responsible for the bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects. Thus, the product at 90 days’ treatment duration showed safety, without changes in the hematological and biochemical profiles in the participating dogs.
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