Pasteurellosis Outbreak Due to Pasteurella multocida Type A in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

Authors

  • Fabio Santiani Laboratório de Patologia Animal (LAPA), Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias (CAV), Lages, SC, Brazil.
  • Luan Cleber Henker Laboratório de Patologia Animal (LAPA), Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias (CAV), Lages, SC, Brazil.
  • Claiton Ismael Schwetz Laboratório de Patologia Animal (LAPA), Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias (CAV), Lages, SC, Brazil.
  • Marina Paula Lorenzett Laboratório de Patologia Animal (LAPA), Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias (CAV), Lages, SC, Brazil.
  • João Xavier Oliveira Filho Laboratório de Patologia Animal (LAPA), Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias (CAV), Lages, SC, Brazil.
  • Marcos Antonio Zanella Morés Laboratório de Patologia Animal (LAPA), Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias (CAV), Lages, SC, Brazil.
  • Ricardo Evandro Mendes Laboratório de Patologia Animal (LAPA), Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias (CAV), Lages, SC, Brazil.
  • Renata Assis Casagrande Laboratório de Patologia Animal (LAPA), Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias (CAV), Lages, SC, Brazil.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.93928

Abstract

Background: Pasteurellosis is a common disease of cattle, pigs, and poultry, which rarely affects humans. In rabbits, the respiratory presentation of the disease is frequently reported. Clinical signs related to bronchopneumonia include sneezing, lung stertors, oculonasal discharge, dyspnea and cyanosis. Infection may lead to otitis, conjunctivitis, abscesses and sepsis. Furthermore, Pasteurella multocida infection may lead to sudden death without clinical manifestations. Reports of pasteurellosis in rabbits are scarce in Brazil. Therefore, the objective of this article is to describe an outbreak of pasteurellosis with high mortality in a rabbity in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Cases: Two adult rabbits were submitted for necropsy at the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory of the Instituto Federal Catarinense - Campus Concórdia, within an interval of twenty days. Herd was represented by 40 animals, of which six fattening rabbits and three breeders died.  Animals were kept in suspended cages with slatted floor. Clinical signs were represented by prostration, sneezing, and mucopurulent nasal discharge. In addition, wounds were observed in the distal portion of the limbs. Death occurred up to two days after the onset of clinical signs. Necropsies were performed and tissue samples were collected for histopathologic, immunohistochemical and microbiologic (bacterial culture and antibiogram) exams. At the necropsy, severe diffuse fibrinous exudate covering the pericardium sac, visceral and parietal pleural surfaces was noted, as well as multiple diaphragm adhesions. In addition, the lungs presented diffuse red coloration and showed multiple abscesses ranging from 0.3 to 1cm in diameter. The nasal sinus and the tracheal mucosa showed diffuse reddening (rabbits 1 and 2). Abscesses up to 2 cm in diameter were observed in the mammary glands (rabbit 1), heart and kidneys (rabbit 2). The urinary bladder was distended by cloudy urine and moderate amount of purulent exudate (rabbits 1 and 2). Histopathological evaluation revealed diffuse marked fibrinosuppurative pleuritis associated with severe multifocal suppurative bronchopneumonia (rabbits 1 and 2), as well as multifocal marked mastitis (rabbit 1), nephritis and myocarditis (rabbit 2). Also, intralesional bacterial aggregates and thrombosis were observed in both cases.  Pasteurella multocida type A was isolated through bacterial culture, and antibiogram showed sensitivity to all tested antibiotics. Immunohistochemistry showed mild multifocal positive staining for P. multocida in the visceral pleura in both cases.

Discussion: In the present case, P. multocida type A led to suppurative bronchopneumonia, pulmonary abscesses and fibrinosuppurative pleuritis in both rabbits. In addition, abscesses affecting the kidneys, heart and mammary glands were observed. These findings are typically seen in this condition in rabbits, and similar lesions may be noted in pigs. It is believed that nutritional, climatic and hierarchical changes may predispose to the development of the disease. In the present outbreak, the disease may have initially affected fattening rabbits, which are more exposed to stressful events, and then bacterial spread to breeders sharing the same facility may have occurred. Furthermore, contributing factors include concomitant bacterial infections, and the level of virulence of the bacterial strain involved in the outbreak. In the present study, the diagnosis of pasteurellosis in rabbits was based on the epidemiological, gross, histopathological, bacterial and immunohistochemical findings. It is believed that the present report will improve the understanding of the disease in rabbits in Brazil, since rare descriptions of the condition are currently available nationwide. 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Bhat P., Singh N.D., Leishangthem G.D., Kaur A., Mahajan V., Banga H.S. & Brar R.S. 2016. Histopathological and immunohistochemical approaches for the diagnosis of Pasteurellosis in swine population of Punjab. Veterinary World. 9(9): 989-995.

Bonamigo A., Duarte C., Winck C.A. & Sehnem S. 2017. Produção da carne cunícula no Brasil como alternativa sustentável. Revista em Agronegócio e Meio Ambiente. 10(4): 1247-1270.

Cardoso E.S., Cançado R.P., Oliveira M.G. & Heitz C. 2007. Estudo exploratório descritivo do emprego de coelhos brancos da Nova Zelândia (Orytolagus cuniculus) como modelo animal na avaliação dos padrões de crescimento craniofacial. Revista Odonto Ciência. 22(55): 66-71.

Davies R.L., MacCorquodale R., Baillie S. & Caffrey B. 2003. Characterization and comparison of Pasteurella multocida strains associated with porcine pneumonia and atrophic rhinitis. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 52(1): 59-67.

Deeb B.J. & DiGiacomo R.F. 2000. Respiratory diseases of rabbits. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Pratice. 3(2): 465-480.

Deeb B.J., DiGiacomo R.F., Bernard B.L. & Silbernagel S.M. 1990. Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in rabbits. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 28(1): 70-75.

Escande F. & Lion C. 1993. Epidemiology of human infections by Pasteurella and related groups in France. Zentralblatt Fur Bakteriologie. 279(1): 131-139.

Ferreira T.S.P., Felizardo M.R., Gobbi D.D.S., Gomes C.R., Filsner P.H.L.N., Moreno M., Paixão R., Pereira J.J. & Moreno A.M. 2012. Virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from rabbits in Brazil. The Scientific World Journal. 2012: 1-6.

Furian T.Q., Borges K.A., Laviniki V., Rocha S.L.S., Almeida C.N., Nascimento V.P., Salle C.T.P. & Moraes H.L.S. 2016. Virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance of Pasteurella multocida isolated from poultry and swine. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 47(1): 210-216.

Hirsh D.C. & Zee Y.C. 1999. Microbiologia Veterinária. 2.ed. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Guanabara Koogan, 446p.

Katoch S., Verma L., Sharma M., Asrani R.K., Kumar S., Chahota R. & Verma S. 2015. Experimental study of the pathogenicity of Pasteurella multocida capsular type B in rabbits. Journal of Comparative Pathology. 153(2-3): 160-166.

Lane E.P., Kock N.D., Hill F.W.G. & Mohan K. 1992. An outbreak of haemorrhagic septicaemia (Septicaemic Pasteurellosis) in Cattle in Zimbabwe. Tropical Animal Health Production. 24: 97-102.

Lennox A.M. 2012. Respiratory disease and pasteurellosis. In: K.E. Quesenberry & J.W. Carpenter (Eds). Ferrets, Rabbit, Rodents. St. Louis: Elsevier, pp.205-206.

Makino L.C. & Nakaghi L.S.O. 2005. Pasteurelose em coelhos: relato de caso. ARS Veterinaria. 21: 138–141.

Massacci F.R., Magistrali C.F., Cucco L., Curcio L., Bano L., Mangili P., Scoccia E., Bisgaard M., Aalbæk B. & Christensen H. 2018. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida involved in rabbit infections. Veterinary Microbiology. 213: 66-72.

Oliveira Filho J.X., Morés M.A.Z., Rebelatto R., Agnol A.M.D., Plieski C.L.A., Klein C.S., Barcellos D.E.S.N. & Morés N. 2015. Pasteurella multocida type A as the primary agent of pneumonia and septicaemia in pigs. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira. 35(8): 716-724.

Oliveira Filho J.X., Morés M.A.Z., Rebellato R., Kich J.D., Cantão M.E., Klein C.S., Guedes R.M.C., Coldebella A., Barcellos D.E.S.N. & Morés N. 2018. Pathogenic variability among Pasteurella multocida type A isolates from Brazilian pig farms. BMC Veterinary Research. 14(1): 1-13.

Per H., Kumandaş S., Gümüş H., Öztürk M.K. & Çoşkun A. 2010. Meningitis and subgaleal, subdural, epidural empyema due to Pasteurella multocida. Journal of Emergency Medicine. 39(1): 35-38.

Pessoa C.A. 2014. Logomorpha (Coelho, Lebre e Tapiti), In: Cubas Z.S., Silva J.C.R. & Catão-Dias J.L. (Eds). Tratado dos Animais Selvagens Medivina Veterinária. 2.ed. São Paulo: Editora Roca, pp.1209-1237.

Rezende A.M.L., Marques L.M.Q., Neves I.P., Coelho N.M. & Gomes W.V. 1972. Pasteurella multocida. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira. 7: 19-21.

Singh R., Remington B., Blackall P. & Turni C. 2014. Epidemiology of fowl cholera in free range broilers. Avian Diseases. 58(1): 124-128.

Taunde P.A., Argenta F.F., Bianchi R.M., Cecco B.C., Vielmo A., Lopes B.C., Siqueira F.M., Andrade C.P., Snel G.G.M., Barros C.S.L., Sonne L., Pavarini S.P & Driemeier D. 2019. Mannheimia haemolytica pleuropneumonia in goats associated with shipping stress. Ciência Rural. 49(1): 1-6.

Published

2019-01-01

How to Cite

Santiani, F., Henker, L. C., Schwetz, C. I., Lorenzett, M. P., Oliveira Filho, J. X., Zanella Morés, M. A., Mendes, R. E., & Casagrande, R. A. (2019). Pasteurellosis Outbreak Due to Pasteurella multocida Type A in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 47. https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.93928

Most read articles by the same author(s)

> >>