Simultaneous Occurrence of Hemangiosarcoma and Grade II Mast Cell Tumor in a Pit Bull Terrier

Authors

  • Mariana Lumack do Monte Barreto Departamentos de Medicina Veterinária & Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE, Brazil.
  • Rômulo Freitas Francelino Dias Departamentos de Medicina Veterinária & Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE, Brazil.
  • Saulo Romero Felix Gonçalves Departamentos de Medicina Veterinária & Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE, Brazil.
  • Órion Pedro da Silva Departamentos de Medicina Veterinária & Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE, Brazil.
  • Roseane Oliveira Feitosa Departamentos de Medicina Veterinária & Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE, Brazil.
  • Stephanie Caroline Gueiros da Silva Departamentos de Medicina Veterinária & Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE, Brazil.
  • Valdemiro Amaro da Silva Junior Departamentos de Medicina Veterinária & Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE, Brazil.
  • Andrea Alice da Fonseca Oliveira Departamentos de Medicina Veterinária & Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE, Brazil.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.93170

Abstract

Background: The incidence of cutaneous neoplasms in dogs is high and quite variable. Hemangiosarcoma (HSA) and mast cell tumor (MCT) are commonly diagnosed neoplasms in isolation; however, reports of concomitant occurrence in a single patient are rare. HSA is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm of endothelial origin; the spleen is the most commonly affected organ. MCT is a common neoplasm that may affect any region of the body, without predilection for sex, although some breeds have shown higher incidence. This report describes a case of HSA and MCT in a Pit bull terrier.

Case: A 5-year-old white male Pit bull was presented to the Small Animal Clinic of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco with nodules in preputial region measuring 5,4 x 3,7 cm and an ulcerated nodule in the right lateral thoracic region measuring 23,0 x 19,0 x 5,5 cm. The owner reported surgical excision of two previous nodules one year before the consultation, but neither were submitted for cytopathological or post-surgical histopathological examination. Two months after the procedure, the nodules recurred. Cytopathological examinations of preputial and lateral thoracic nodules were performed, with a suggestive diagnosis for HSA and MCT, respectively. Due to the unfavorable prognosis and the weakness of the animal, euthanasia was elected. Necroscopic examination revealed an ideal body condition score (4/9), hypertrophy of right pre-scapular and axillary lymph nodes, red hepatization in the apical lobe of the right lung, with multiple, soft and pigmented nodules in the spleen, liver, pancreas and testis. Several tissue samples were collected, conditioned in 10% buffered formaldehyde solution, routinely processed for histology, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue. Microscopically, the lateral thoracic nodule consisted of round cells in cordonal arrangement, with sparse basophilic and discretely granular cytoplasm, and a round, central nucleus with a single evident nucleolus. Some cells were positively marked by toluidine blue, and the neoplasm was classified as grade II MCT. The preputial and digital nodules were confirmed as well-differentiated HSA, with fusiform cells forming vascular structures containing large numbers of erythrocytes and irregular fibrovascular stroma. Metastases of HSA were observed in the lung, liver, spleen, pancreas, and testis. Invasion of mast cells was observed in lymph node.

Discussion: Although the etiology of HSA has not yet been clarified, its occurrence in dogs with poorly pigmented skin exposed to ultraviolet light is well established, consistent with observations in this case. MCTs often occur on the pelvic and thoracic limbs, abdomen, and chest. Primary site of HSA may be in any tissue, but it is commonly seen in highly vascular organs such as the spleen. When it occurs on the skin, HSA has more frequently been reported in the preputial and scrotal regions in dogs. For both neoplasms, the locations in this Pit bull corresponded to those commonly reported. MCTs with ulceration, edema, pruritus, and flushing are associated with worse prognosis. Metastasis is a major concern when evaluating oncologic patients. While it is difficult to determine the primary site of HSAs, metastasis often occurs in the lungs and liver. In this case, metastatic lesions were identified in the lungs, liver, spleen, pancreas, and testis by necropsy and histopathology. Fine needle aspiration of neoplasm-suggestive lesions should be performed prior to surgical procedures, especially because of its high sensitivity for MCTs. MCT and HSA are tumors of great significance, due to their high occurrence and variable prognosis. Multidisciplinary diagnostics involving clinical and pathological aspects are essential to guide the prognosis and treatment of these tumors.

Mariana Lumack do Monte Barretto, Rômulo Freitas Francelino Dias, Saulo Romero Felix Gonçalves, Órion Pedro da Silva, Roseane Oliveira Feitosa, Stephanie Caroline Gueiros Silva, Valdemiro Amaro da Silva Junior & Andrea Alice da Fonseca Oliveira

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ávila V.P.F., Esmeraldino A.T. & Witz M.I. 2011. Aspectos clínicos e patológicos de hemangiossarcoma em cães: estudo de 62 casos. Veterinária em Foco. 8(2): 197-204.

Bonnett B.N., Egenvall A., Hedhammar A. & Olson P. 2005. Mortality in over 350,000 insured Swedish dogs from 1995-2000. I. Breed-, gender-, age- and cause-specific rates. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. 46(1): 105-120.

De Nardi A.B., Rodaski S., Sousa R.S., Costa T.A., Macedo T.R., Rodigheri S.M., Rios A. & Piekarz C.H. 2002. Prevalências de neoplasias e modalidades de tratamentos em cães, atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal do Paraná. Archives of Veterinary Science. 7(2): 15-26.

Goldschmidt M.H. & Hendrick M.J. 2002. Tumors of the skin and soft tissues. In: Meuten D.J. (Ed). Tumors in Domestic Animals. Ames: Iowa State, pp.44-117.

Gross T.L., Ihrke P. J., Walder E. J. & Affolter V. R. 2005. Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat: Clinical and Histopathologic Diagnosis. 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell, 932p.

Jones T.C., Hunt R.D. & King N.W. 2000. A pele e seus apêndices. In: Jones T.C., Hunt R.D. & King N.W. (Eds). Patologia Veterinária. São Paulo: Manole, pp.831-886.

Kiupel M., Webster J.D., Kaneene J.B., Miller R. & Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan V. 2004. The use of KIT and tryptase expression patterns as prognostic tools for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors. Veterinary Pathology. 41(4): 371-377.

Kumar V., Abbas A.K. & Aster J.C. 2013. Robbins Patologia Básica. 9th edn. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier. pp.928.

Lombard L. & Moloney J. 1959. Experimental transmission of mast cell sarcoma in dogs. Federation Proceedings. 18(1): 490-495.

London C.A. & Seguin B. 2003. Mast cell tumors in the dog. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice. 33(3): 473-479.

MacEwen E.G. 2001. Hemangiosarcoma. In: Withrow S.J. & MacEwen E.G. (Eds). Small Animal Clinical Oncology. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, pp.639-646.

MacEwen E.G. 2007. Hemangiosarcoma. In: Withrow S.J. & MacEwen E.G. (Eds). Small Animal Clinical Oncology. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, pp.785-794.

Magalhães A.M., Ramadilha R.R., Barros C.S.L. & Peixoto P.V. 2001. Estudo comparativo entre citopatologia e histopatologia no diagnóstico de neoplasias caninas. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 21(1): 23-32.

Medleau L. 2003. Dermatologia de Pequenos Animais: Atlas Colorido e Guia Terapêutico. São Paulo: Roca, pp.253.

Morrison W.B. 2002. Blood vascular, lymphatic, and splenic cancer. In: Morrison W.B. Cancer in Dogs and Cats - Medical and Surgical Management. Jackson Hole: Teton New Media, pp.705-715.

Page R.L. & Thrall D.E. 2004. Sarcomas de tecidos moles e hemangiossarcomas. In: Ettinger S.J. & Feldman E.C. Tratado de Medicina Interna Veterinária: Doenças do Cão e do Gato. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, pp.561-566.

Patnaik A.K., Ehler W.J. & Macewen E.G. 1984. Canine cutaneous mast cell tumors: morphologic grading and survival time in 83 dogs. Veterinary Pathology. 21(5): 469-474.

Pulley L.T. & Stannard A.A. 1990. Skin and soft tissues. In: Moulton J.E. (Ed). Tumors of Domestic Animals. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp.23-87.

Raskin R.E. & Meyer D.J. 2003. Atlas de Citologia de Cães e Gatos. São Paulo: Editora Roca, 354p.

Rogers K.S. 1996. Mast cell tumors. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice. 26(1): 87-101.

Schultheiss P.C. 2004. A retrospective study of visceral and nonvisceral hemangiosarcoma and hemangiomas in domestic animals. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 16(6): 522-526.

Sousa T.M., Fighera R.A, Irigoyen L.F. & Barros C.S.L. 2006. Estudo retrospectivo de 761 tumores cutâneos em cães. Ciência Rural. 36(2): 555-560.

Tham D.M. & Vail D.M. 2007. Mast cell tumors. In: Withrow S.J. & Vail D.M. (Eds). Small Animal Clinical Oncology. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier, pp.402-424.

Welle M.M., Rohrer Bley C., Howard J. & Rüfenacht S. 2008. Canine mast cell tumours: a review of the pathogenesis, clinical features, pathology and treatment. Veterinary Dermatology. 19(6): 321-339.

Yamamoto S., Katsuichiro H., Hirakawa A., Chimura S., Kobayashi M. & Machida N. 2013. Epidemiological, clinical and pathological features of primary cardiac hemangiosarcoma in dogs: a review of 51 cases. The Journal of Veterinary Medicine Science. 75(11): 1433-1441.

Ziekman P.G., Otter W.D., Tan J.F., Teske E., Kirpensteijn J., Koten J.W. & Jacobs J.J. 2013. Intratumoural interleukin-2 therapy can induce regression of non-resectable mastocytoma in dogs. Anticancer Research. 33(1): 161-165.

Published

2019-01-01

How to Cite

do Monte Barreto, M. L., Francelino Dias, R. F., Gonçalves, S. R. F., da Silva, Órion P., Feitosa, R. O., Gueiros da Silva, S. C., da Silva Junior, V. A., & da Fonseca Oliveira, A. A. (2019). Simultaneous Occurrence of Hemangiosarcoma and Grade II Mast Cell Tumor in a Pit Bull Terrier. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 47. https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.93170

Most read articles by the same author(s)

> >>