Typhlocolitis by Edwardsiella tarda in a Cow

Authors

  • Mateus Eloir Gabriel Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Instituto Federal Catarinense (IFC) – Campus Concórdia, Concórdia, SC, Brazil.
  • Luan Cleber Henker Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Instituto Federal Catarinense (IFC) – Campus Concórdia, Concórdia, SC, Brazil.
  • Christofe Carneiro Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Instituto Federal Catarinense (IFC) – Campus Concórdia, Concórdia, SC, Brazil.
  • Anderson Gris Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Instituto Federal Catarinense (IFC) – Campus Concórdia, Concórdia, SC, Brazil.
  • Renata Assis Casagrande Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Instituto Federal Catarinense (IFC) – Campus Concórdia, Concórdia, SC, Brazil.
  • Teane Milagres Augusto Gomes Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Instituto Federal Catarinense (IFC) – Campus Concórdia, Concórdia, SC, Brazil.
  • Diovane Medeiros dos Santos Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Instituto Federal Catarinense (IFC) – Campus Concórdia, Concórdia, SC, Brazil.
  • Ricardo Evandro Gomes Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Instituto Federal Catarinense (IFC) – Campus Concórdia, Concórdia, SC, Brazil.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.91420

Abstract

Background: Edwardsiella tarda has been report as etiology of gastroenteritis in both human and veterinary medicine, usually associated with exposure to aquatic environments in immunocompromised individuals. The present report describes a case of typhlocolitis in a cow in the west region of Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

Case: After clinically evaluation of animal and proceeding euthanasia and realized the necropsy. Tissue samples were collected, and routinely processed for histological examination. Histopathological lesions were described as mild, moderate and severe. Tissue and swabs samples of small and large intestine were sent to standard microbiological culture processing. At necropsy, cattle presented severe dehydration and emaciation. Eye and vaginal mucosa were severely congested. The opening of the abdominal cavity revealed a great amount of greenish fluid and a large amount of fecal material, associated with diffuse severe peritonitis, evidenced by hyperemia and severe deposition of fibrin in the visceral and parietal peritoneal surface. In the serosa of the cecum, there were two points of rupture, observed in the proximal colon. The mucosa of cecum and colon were severely edematous, hyperemic, and presented diffusely distributed pinpoint round hemorrhages, as well as fibrinonecrotic material adhered to the surface. Histologically, in the mucosa of cecum and colon, moderate to severe diffuse inflammatory infiltrate of neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells associated with multifocal severe necrosis were observed. Moderate diffuse fibrin deposition was evidenced in the submucosa and muscular, as well as multifocal moderate necrosis in the muscular layer. In the serous, severe diffuse inflammatory infiltrate of neutrophils associated with fibrin deposition and innumerous coccoid bacterial colonies were observed. The samples subjected to bacterial isolation showed growth of Edwardsiella tarda. All samples were negative for Salmonella spp. and Yersinia spp.

Discussion: The final diagnosis was established through the association of clinical history, clinical signs, gross and histopathological lesions, as well as, bacterial isolation of the etiological agent, Edwardsiella tarda. In this case, it is conjectured that the reservoirs which cattle had access represented the source of infection. The fact that the animal was in the immediate postpartum period may have predisposed to the development of clinical disease due to immunosuppression. In domestic animals, Edwardsiella tarda has been reported in swine, and as a cause of septicemia in calves. Clinically, intestinal manifestations observed in edwardsiellosis in cattle are indistinguishable from several other conditions that cause diarrhea, such as infectious, nutritional or parasitic diseases. The main differential diagnoses are salmonellosis and yersiniosis due to the similarities regarding to gross and histopathological lesions in these cases compared to cases of edwardsiellosis. Salmonellosis is characterized by grey to yellowish, fetid diarrhea in which blood and mucus are oftentimes observed. At necropsy, catarrhal, hemorrhagic or fibrinous enteritis may be evidenced. The lesions initially are seen in the ileum. However, in the chronic stages of infection, foci of necrosis and ulceration may be noted mainly in the cecum and colon. Histologically, a fibrin layer associated with necrosis and mucosal ulceration can be observed in the small intestine and initial portion of large intestine. Inflammatory infiltrate composed predominantly by neutrophils, as well as fibrin thrombi in capillaries and venules are also observed. Lesions observed are similar that described in ulcerative colitis by E. tarda in human patients. In conclusion, Edwardsiella tarda can lead to a fatal typhlocolitis in cattle, being an important differential diagnosis in cases of acute diarrhea.

Arya A.V., Rostom A., Dong W.F. & Flynn A.N. 2011. Crohn’s Disease Exacerbation Induced by Edwardsiella tarda Gastroenteritis. Gastroenterology. 5(3): 623-627.

Engel J.J. & Martin T.L. 2006. Edwardsiella tarda as a cause of postdysenteric ulcerative colitis. International Journal Colarectal Disease. 21(2): 184-185.

Ewing W.H., McWhorter A.C., Escobar M.R. & Lubin A.H. 1965. Edwardsiella, a new genus of enterobacteriaceae based on a new species, E. tarda. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 15(1): 33-38.

Gelberg H.B. 2013.Sistema Alimentar, Peritônio, Omento Mesentério e Cavidade Peritonial. In: McGavin M.D. & Zachary F.M. (Eds). Bases da patologia em veterinária. 2.ed. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier, pp.378-382.

Janda J.M. & Abbott S.L. 1993.Infections Associated with the Genus Edwardsiella: the role of Edwardsiella tarda in human disease. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 17(4): 742-748.

Leung K.Y., Siame B.A., Tenkink B.J., Noort R.J. & Mok Y.K. 2012. Edwardsiella tarda – Virulence mechanisms of an emerging gastroenteritis pathogen. Microbes and Infection. 14(1): 26-34.

Litton K.M. & Rogers B.A. 2016.  Edwardsiella tarda Endocarditis Confirmed by Indium-111 White Blood Cell Scan: An Unusual Pathogen and Diagnostic Modality. Case Reports in Infectious Diseases. 2016:1-3. 

Magalhães H., Freitas M.A., Santos J.A. & Costa C.H.C. 1984. Septicemia por Edwardsiella tarda, em bezerro. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira. 19(3): 367-370.

Hirai Y., Ashata-Tago S., Ainoda Y., Fujita T. & Kikuchi K. 2015.Edwardsiella tarda bacteremia. A rare but fatal water – and foodborne infection: Review of the literature and clinical cases from a single centre. The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology. 26(6): 313-318.

Mikamo H., Ninomiya M., Sawamura H. & Tamaya T. 2003. Puerperal intrauterine infection caused by Edwardsiella tarda. Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy. 9(4): 341-343.

Mohanti B.R. & Sahoo P.K. 2007. Edwardsiellosis in fish: a brief review. Journal of biosciences. 32(7): 1331-1344.

Owens D.R., Nelson S.L. & Addinon J.B. 1974. Isolation of Edwardsiella tarda from Swine. Appllied microbiology. 27(4): 703-705.

Park S.B., Aokil T. & Jung T.S. 2012. Pathogenesis of and strategies for preventing Edwardsiella tarda infection in fish. Veterinary Research. 43(1): 67.

Riet-Correa F., Schild A.L., Méndez M.D.C. & Lemos R.A.A. 2007.Doenças de Ruminantes e Equídeos. 3.ed. Santa Maria: Pallotti, 998p.

Slaven E.M., Lopez F.A., Hart S.M. & Sanders C.V. 2001. Myonecrosis Caused by Edwardsiella tarda: A Case Report and Case Series of Extraintestinal E. tarda Infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 32(10): 1430-1433.

Tamada T., Koganemaru H., Mastsumoto K. & Hitomi S. 2009.Urosepsis caused by Edwardsiella tarda Journal of infection and chemotherapy. 15(3): 191-194.

Thune R.L., Stanley L.A. & Cooper R.K. 1993. Pathogenesis of gram-negative bacterial infections in warm water fish. Annual Reviem of Fish Diseases. 3: 37-68.

Uzal F.A., Plattiner B.L. & Hostetter J.M. 2015. Alimentary system. In: Maxie M.G. (Ed). Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of domestic animals.v.2. 6th edn. Saint Louis: Elsevier, pp.167-177.

Wang I.K., Kuo H.L., Chen Y.M., Lin C.L., Chang H.Y., Chuang F.R. & Lee M.H. 2005. Extraintestinal manifestations of Edwardsiella tarda infection. International Journal of Clinical Practice. 59(8): 917-921. 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Arya A.V., Rostom A., Dong W.F. & Flynn A.N. 2011. Crohn’s Disease Exacerbation Induced by Edwardsiella tarda Gastroenteritis. Gastroenterology. 5(3): 623-627.

Engel J.J. & Martin T.L. 2006. Edwardsiella tarda as a cause of postdysenteric ulcerative colitis. International Journal Colarectal Disease. 21(2): 184-185.

Ewing W.H., McWhorter A.C., Escobar M.R. & Lubin A.H. 1965. Edwardsiella, a new genus of enterobacteriaceae based on a new species, E. tarda. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 15(1): 33-38.

Gelberg H.B. 2013. Sistema Alimentar, Peritônio, Omento Mesentério e Cavidade Peritonial. In: McGavin M.D. & Zachary F.M. (Eds). Bases da patologia em veterinária. 2.ed. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier, pp.378-382.

Janda J.M. & Abbott S.L. 1993. Infections Associated with the Genus Edwardsiella: the role of Edwardsiella tarda in human disease. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 17(4): 742-748.

Leung K.Y., Siame B.A., Tenkink B.J., Noort R.J. & Mok Y.K. 2012. Edwardsiella tarda – Virulence mechanisms of an emerging gastroenteritis pathogen. Microbes and Infection. 14(1): 26-34.

Litton K.M. & Rogers B.A. 2016. Edwardsiella tarda Endocarditis Confirmed by Indium-111 White Blood Cell Scan: An Unusual Pathogen and Diagnostic Modality. Case Reports in Infectious Diseases. 2016:1-3.

Magalhães H., Freitas M.A., Santos J.A. & Costa C.H.C. 1984. Septicemia por Edwardsiella tarda, em bezerro. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira. 19(3): 367-370.

Hirai Y., Ashata-Tago S., Ainoda Y., Fujita T. & Kikuchi K. 2015. Edwardsiella tarda bacteremia. A rare but fatal water – and foodborne infection: Review of the literature and clinical cases from a single centre. The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology. 26(6): 313-318.

Mikamo H., Ninomiya M., Sawamura H. & Tamaya T. 2003. Puerperal intrauterine infection caused by Edwardsiella tarda. Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy. 9(4): 341-343.

Mohanti B.R. & Sahoo P.K. 2007. Edwardsiellosis in fish: a brief review. Journal of biosciences. 32(7): 1331-1344.

Owens D.R., Nelson S.L. & Addinon J.B. 1974. Isolation of Edwardsiella tarda from Swine. Appllied microbiology. 27(4): 703-705.

Park S.B., Aokil T. & Jung T.S. 2012. Pathogenesis of and strategies for preventing Edwardsiella tarda infection in fish. Veterinary Research. 43(1): 67.

Riet-Correa F., Schild A.L., Méndez M.D.C. & Lemos R.A.A. 2007. Doenças de Ruminantes e Equídeos. 3.ed. Santa Maria: Pallotti, 998p.

Slaven E.M., Lopez F.A., Hart S.M. & Sanders C.V. 2001. Myonecrosis Caused by Edwardsiella tarda: A Case Report and Case Series of Extraintestinal E. tarda Infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 32(10): 1430-1433.

Tamada T., Koganemaru H., Mastsumoto K. & Hitomi S. 2009. Urosepsis caused by Edwardsiella tarda Journal of infection and chemotherapy. 15(3): 191-194.

Thune R.L., Stanley L.A. & Cooper R.K. 1993. Pathogenesis of gram-negative bacterial infections in warm water fish. Annual Reviem of Fish Diseases. 3: 37-68.

Uzal F.A., Plattiner B.L. & Hostetter J.M. 2015. Alimentary system. In: Maxie M.G. (Ed). Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of domestic animals.v.2. 6th edn. Saint Louis: Elsevier, pp.167-177.

Wang I.K., Kuo H.L., Chen Y.M., Lin C.L., Chang H.Y., Chuang F.R. & Lee M.H. 2005. Extraintestinal manifestations of Edwardsiella tarda infection. International Journal of Clinical Practice. 59(8): 917-921.

Published

2019-01-01

How to Cite

Eloir Gabriel, M., Henker, L. C., Carneiro, C., Gris, A., Casagrande, R. A., Augusto Gomes, T. M., dos Santos, D. M., & Gomes, R. E. (2019). Typhlocolitis by Edwardsiella tarda in a Cow. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 47. https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.91420

Most read articles by the same author(s)

> >>