Clinical, Laboratory and Ultrasonographic Findings of Diabetic Dog with Emphysematous Cystitis
Background: Emphysematous cystitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the lower urinary tract characterized by the accumulation of gas within the wall and lumen of the urinary bladder. The clinical manifestations of emphysematous cystitis resemble those of bacterial cystitis, often hindering the differentiation between the two. In this work, we report a case of emphysematous cystitis in a diabetic dog. The diagnosis of cystitis was followed by ultrasonography for the early detection of emphysematous cystitis, which showed the presence of multifocal and irregular hyperechoic interfaces forming a distal reverberation artifact.
Case: A 9-year-old female dog was referred to VETCLINIC Veterinary Hospital 24 hours with a history of urinary incontinence, polydipsia, polyuria, and diabetes mellitus. At first, the blood glucose was measured and found to be 376 mg/dL. Blood count, biochemical measurements of alkaline phosphatase (AF), urea, creatinine, and alanine aminotransferase (AAT), urinalysis, urine culture with antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and abdominal ultrasonography were performed. The hematological exams showed that the serum was lipemic and with hemolysis; the values of AAT, AF, and total plasma proteins were above the reference values; hematocrit was below the normal level; erythrocyte rouleaux and thrombocytosis with platelet aggregates were present. Urinalysis showed the presence of traces of proteins, glucose, and occult blood as well as granular and hyaline cylinders and transitional epithelial cells. In urine culture, growth of the aerobic bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae was observed, being sensitive to most of the antimicrobials. Ultrasonography showed the presence of gas in the wall of the urinary bladder, besides a discrete thickening of the wall, compatible with the diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis. Discussion: The first report of emphysematous cystitis in dogs was made in 1926 in a diabetic dog. Emphysematous cystitis is complicated, characterized by the presence of gas in the wall and lumen of the urinary bladder. It is usually reported in patients with diabetes mellitus. The patient presented with a very high glycemic index (376 mg/dL), in addition to having a history of urinary obstruction and presence of bladder stones, which may have acted as predisposing factors for the onset of emphysematous cystitis. In the present case, ultrasonography was the examination of choice. Hyperechoic reverberation-forming lines, identified as gas present in the topography of the urinary bladder, were easily visualized, as described in the literature. For the treatment of this condition, adequate management of the diet and the correct use of antimicrobials are of fundamental importance since the presence of diabetes mellitus in this patient can present serious complications in the future. This report shows the importance of the use of a combination of diagnostic tools to arrive at the correct diagnosis of the patient.
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