Breast Carcinoma with Pulmonary Metastasis in Armadillo (Eupharactus sexcinctus)

Authors

  • Amanda de Deus Ferreira Alves Área de Patologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE).
  • Daniel Barreto de Siqueira Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE, Brazil.
  • Luciana Carla Rameh-de-Albuquerque Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE, Brazil.
  • Márcio André Silva Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE, Brazil.
  • Márcia de Figueiredo Pereira Área de Patologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE).
  • Andrea Alice da Fonseca Oliveira Área de Patologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE).
  • Valdemiro Amaro da Silva Junior Área de Patologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE).

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.87493

Abstract

Background: Breast neoplasms are among the most common neoplastic conditions affecting domestic animals and are considered the most common type of cancer affecting women, bitches, and cats. However, there are few reports on breast neoplasms in wild animals, and there is no record of their occurrence in armadillos worldwide. Breast neoplasms are hormone-dependent neoplasms that often cause lymph node and pulmonary metastases. The diagnosis is based on the patient’s history, complete physical examination, and complementary tests. Here we report a case of mammary neoplasia with pulmonary metastasis in an armadillo (Euphractus sexcinctus).

Case: A senile female armadillo was referred to us for treatment with a history of hyporexia and nodules in both breasts. Ultrasonographic examination revealed a hypoechogenic nodular lesion with a cross-section of approximately 1.3 × 1.4 cm and well-defined borders. The lesion had a circumscribed aspect in the left mammary gland. In the right mammary gland, there was a heterogeneous lesion with cystic formations and anechoic content. Cytopathological examination of the nodules was performed by fine needle aspiration cytology and revealed the presence of epithelial cells with ovoid and aberrant nuclei, anisocariasis, binucleation, coarse chromatin, and a high nucleus to cytoplasm ratio suggestive of carcinoma. The animal had a lean body score due to hyporexia that had evolved to anorexia and was undergoing supportive treatment. Nevertheless, the animal died two months after the cytologic diagnosis. A necropsy was performed. Cutting of the breast nodules revealed a hardened pale yellow material. The animal had pronounced pleural effusion, hemorrhage, and numerous pale yellow nodules of various sizes with firm consistency throughout the lung parenchyma. It also had hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Fragments of various organs were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, routinely processed, embedded in paraffin, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Upon microscopic examination, the mammary nodes demonstrated a proliferation of epithelial cells organized into tubular structures with intraluminal papillary projections. The cells had a polyhedral profile and a high nucleus to cytoplasm ratio, moderately pleomorphic evident nuclei. Some cells had coarse chromatin. We observed moderate anisocytosis and anisocariasis, as well as mitotic figures. In the lungs, nodules with the same microscopic characteristics of the mammary nodes were observed in addition to intense congestion and multifocal hemorrhages.

Discussion: This type of mammary carcinoma is considered an invasive neoplasm of ductal origin, and is morphologically characterized by rounded, ovoid, or angulated tubule formations with intraluminal projections. The patient’s prognosis is directly related to the occurrence of vascular invasion and metastasis. If present, these conditions may lead to reduced patient survival. Since the lungs are the most common sites of metastasis, pleural effusion caused by vessel erosion due to the presence of tumors is common and can in most cases lead to respiratory failure and eventually death. In this case, the association between the necropsy findings and the results of the histopathological examination enabled us to classify the carcinoma as one of mammary origin and of the tubulopapillary type with pulmonary metastasis. This is the first report of mammary carcinoma in an armadillo in captivity in the world.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Allen S.W., Prasse K.W. & Mahaffey E.A. 1986. Cytologic differentiation of benign from malignant canine mammary

tumors. Veterinary Pathology. 23(6): 649-55.

Calas M.J.G., Koch H.A. & Dutra M.V.P. 2007. Breast ultrasound: evaluation of echographic criteria for differentiation of breast lesions. Radiologia Brasileira. 40: 1-7.

Cavalli G.D., Malta M.C.C. & Costa M.E.L.T. 2008. Neoplasia mamária em onça parda (Puma concolor) e leoa (Pantera leo). Clínica Veterinária. 77: 86-90.

Feliciano M.A.R., Vicente W.R.R., Leite C.A.L. & Silveira T. 2008. Abordagem ultrassonográfica da neoplasia mamária em cadelas: revisão de literatura. Revista Brasileira Reprodução Animal. 32(3): 197-201.

Filgueira K.D., Reis P.F.C.C., Macêdo B., Oliveira I.V.P.M., Pimentel M.M.L. & Reche Júnior A. 2014. Comportamento

metastático das neoplasias mamárias malignas da espécie felina. Acta Veterinaria Brasilica. 8(3): 209-214.

Gamba C.O., Ferreira E., Salgado B.S., Damasceno K.A., Bertagnolli A.C., Nakagaki K.Y.R. & Cassali G.D. 2017. Neoplasias malignas. In: Cassali G.D. (Ed). Patologia mamária canina: do diagnóstico ao tratamento. São Paulo: Medvet, pp.91-116.

Gardner A.L. 2005. Order Cingulata. In: Wilson D.E. & Reeder D.M. (Eds). Mammal species of the world: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 3rd edn. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp.94-97.

Grandi F. 2017. Citopatologia mamária: técnicas de amostragem, interpretação e classificação citopatológica. In: Cassali G.D. (Ed). Patologia mamária canina: do diagnóstico ao tratamento. São Paulo: Medvet, pp.33-59.

McAloose D., Munson L. & Naydan D.K. 2007. Histologic features of mammary carcinomas in zoo felids treated with melengestrol acetate (MGA) contraceptives. Veterinary Pathology. 44(3): 320-326.

Medri I.M., Mourão G. & Marinho-Filho J. 2009. Morfometria de Tatu-Peba, Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758), no Pantanal da Nhecolândia, MS. Edentata. 8(10): 35-40.

Goldschmidt M.H., Peña L. & Zappulli V. 2017. Tumors of the mammary gland. In: Meuten D.J. (Ed). Tumors in Domestic Animals. 5th edn. Ames: Wiley-Blackwell, pp.723-765.

Paglia A.P., Fonseca G.A.B., Rylands A.B., Herrmann G., Aguiar L.M.S., Chiarello A. G., Leite Y.L.R., Costa L.P., Siciliano S., Kierulff M.C.M., Mendes S.L., Tavares V.C., Mittermeier R.A. & Patton J.L. 2012. Lista Anotada dos Mamíferos do Brasil: Occasional Papers in Conservation Biology. 2nd edn. Arlington: Conservation International, 76p.

Redford K.H. & Wetzel R.M. 1985. Euphractus sexcinctus. Mammalian Species. 252: 1-4.

Sarraff-Lopes A.P. & Larsson M.H.M.A. 2011. Avaliação ultrassonográfica torácica em cães com efusão pleural e/

ou pericárdica. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science. 48(5): 399-407.

Shafiee R., Javanbakht J., Atyabi N., Kheradmand P., Kheradmand D., Bahrami A., Daraei H. & Khadivar F. 2013. Diagnosis, classification and granding of canine mammary tumors as a model to study human breast cancer: clinico- cytohistopathological study with enviromental factors influencing public health and medicine. Cancer cell international. 9: 13-79.

Togni M., Masuda E.K., Kommers G.D., Fighera R.A. & Irigoyen L.F. 2013. Estudo retrospectivo de 207 casos de tumores mamários em gatas. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 33(3): 353-358.

Published

2018-01-01

How to Cite

Ferreira Alves, A. de D., de Siqueira, D. B., Rameh-de-Albuquerque, L. C., Silva, M. A., Pereira, M. de F., Oliveira, A. A. da F., & da Silva Junior, V. A. (2018). Breast Carcinoma with Pulmonary Metastasis in Armadillo (Eupharactus sexcinctus). Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 46, 5. https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.87493

Most read articles by the same author(s)

> >>