Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases from a Pet Blue-Fronted-Amazon Parrot (Amazona aestiva)
Background: The indiscriminate use of antibiotics both in humans and in animals, has contributed to the development of bacterial resistance. One of the key mechanisms in the resistance of enterobacteria to antibiotics is the production of extendedspectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), which reduce the therapeutic options available. Several studies have been performed in different animal species in order to isolate and identify multidrug-resistant strains and determine their antibiotic sensitivity profile. The purpose of this study was to detect ESBL-producing enterobacteria in isolates from a pet blue-fronted amazon parrot.
Case: A 16-year-old pet blue-fronted-amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) weighing 0.445 kg, from the city of Presidente Castelo Branco, Paraná, Brazil, was admitted into a specialized veterinary clinic in the city of Maringá. This parrot was presented with agitation and aggressive behavior. It was fed with sunflower seeds, and its cage was small and unsanitary especially in the feeding and drinking areas, which were heavily contaminated with feces. The parrot had been diagnosed with acute sinusitis approximately one year prior, with a history of treatment with tylosin, thuya (a herbal remedy popularly used for fowl pox), and a mineral-vitamin complex. The clinical symptoms included dyspnea and bilateral increase of facial swelling, with a mass in the peri-nasal region. A membranous red tissue not related to the nictitating membrane was observed in the lower left eyelid. To obtain a better clinical evaluation, the bird was anesthetized with an intramuscular injection of dextroketamine 50 mg/kg (KetaminS+™). Subsequently, physical examination, head radiographic examinations, and an attempt at sinus draining were performed. The radiographic examinations showed a decreased amount of air in the nasal sinuses. For treatment, oral itraconazole and vitamin A were prescribed, and a dietary improvement, prioritizing the offering of fruits and industrialized food for parrots was proposed. Samples were collected from the cloaca and choanae by making rotating movements with compressed sterile swabs in the corresponding locations. All samples were kept in Amies transport media with activated coal and forwarded under refrigeration to the Laboratory of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Public Health in the Post-Graduation Program in Animal Sciences with Emphasis in Bioactive Products at Universidade Paranaense (UNIPAR).
Discussion: The samples were subjected to phenotypic antimicrobial sensitivity tests and phenotypic testing for detecting ESBL-producing strains. Escherichia coli was identified and isolated from the cloacal sample. Phenotypic tests for antimicrobial sensitivity, detected resistance to the following antimicrobials: ceftriaxone, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, cefepime, ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanate, and tetracycline. The phenotypic test for detecting ESBL-producing strains was positive. The findings in this study had no relation with the clinical symptoms presented by the parrot. However, in the samples collected, it was possible to detect the presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, indicating that this parrot had strains in its cloacal microbiota that were either multidrug-resistant or at a subclinical stage of an infection. This knowledge is important, since the presence of this bacteria in a pet represents an important factor in the dissemination of multidrug-resistant strains into the environment, as well as being a source of contamination for both humans and other animals.
Brun-Buisson C., Legrand P., Philippon A., Montravers F., Ansquer M. & Duval J. 1987. Transferable enzymaticresistance to third-generation cephalosporins during nosocomial outbreak of multi-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.Lancet. 8(2): 302-306.
Christofoletti M.D. 2014. Reprodução de papagaio-verdadeiro (Amazona aestiva) em cativeiro: perfil anual de esteróides
sexuais e ensaio de estímulo hormonal exógeno. 59p. Jaboticabal, SP. Tese (Doutorado em Medicina Veterinária) -Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). 2013. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility
Testing: Twenty-third Informational Supplement M100-S23. Wayne: CLSI, 199p.
Horn R.V., Cardoso W.M., Lopes E.S., Teixeira R.S.C., Albuquerque A.H., Silva R.C.R., Machado D.N. & Bezerra
W.G.A. 2015. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of members from the Enterobacteriaceae family isolated from
canaries (Serinus canaria). Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 35(6): 552-556.
Mana M., Bonassi N., Romanelli S., Svidzinsk T.I.E. & Lemes R.M.L. 2014. Prevalência de Klebsiella spp. ESBL isolada em hospital Escola do sul de Minas Gerais. Revista da Universidade Vale do Rio Verde. 12(2): 497-506.
Oliveira M.R.M. & Medeiros M. 2015. Agentes causadores de mastite e resistência bacteriana. Revista Científica de Medicina Veterinária. 2(1): 45-60.
Picozzi S.C.M., Casellato S., Rossini M., Paola G., Tejada M., Costa E. & Carmignani L. 2014. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-positive Escherichia coli causing complicated upper urinary tract infection: Urologist should act in time. Urology Annals. 6(2): 107-112.
Quinn P.J., Markey B.K., Cater M.E., Donnely W.J. & Leonar F.C. 2005. Microbiologia Veterinária e Doenças Infecciosas. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 512p.
Santos H.F., Flôres M.L., Lara V.M., Silva M.S., Battisti L. & Lovato L.T. 2010. Microbiota cloacal aeróbia de cracídeos cativos no Rio Grande do Sul e sua susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 30(12): 1077-1082.
Sidjabat H. & Paterson D.L. 2015. Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in Asia: epidemiology and management.
Expert review of anti-infective therapy. 13(5): 575-591.
World Health Organization (WHO). 2016. Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Antimicrobial resistance in the Western Pacific Region: a review of surveillance and health systems response. [Fonte:<http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstre am/10665/208222/1/9789290617013_eng.pdf. >]. [Accessed online in December 2016].
How to Cite
This journal provides open access to all of its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Such access is associated with increased readership and increased citation of an author's work. For more information on this approach, see the Public Knowledge Project and Directory of Open Access Journals.
We define open access journals as journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access. From the BOAI definition of "open access" we take the right of users to "read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles" as mandatory for a journal to be included in the directory.
La Red y Portal Iberoamericano de Revistas Científicas de Veterinaria de Libre Acceso reúne a las principales publicaciones científicas editadas en España, Portugal, Latino América y otros países del ámbito latino