Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases from a Pet Blue-Fronted-Amazon Parrot (Amazona aestiva)

Authors

  • Karoline Franciani Cardoso Lopes Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência Animal com Ênfase em Produtos Bioativos, Universidade Paranaense (UNIPAR), Umuarama, PR, Brazil.
  • Rodrigo Assunção Moura Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência Animal com Ênfase em Produtos Bioativos, Universidade Paranaense (UNIPAR), Umuarama, PR, Brazil.
  • Ricardo de Melo Germano Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência Animal com Ênfase em Produtos Bioativos, Universidade Paranaense (UNIPAR), Umuarama, PR, Brazil.
  • José Ricardo Pachaly Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência Animal com Ênfase em Produtos Bioativos, Universidade Paranaense (UNIPAR), Umuarama, PR, Brazil.
  • Isabela Carvalho dos Santos Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência Animal com Ênfase em Produtos Bioativos, Universidade Paranaense (UNIPAR), Umuarama, PR, Brazil.
  • Lisiane de Almeida Martins Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência Animal com Ênfase em Produtos Bioativos, Universidade Paranaense (UNIPAR), Umuarama, PR, Brazil.
  • Marco Aurélio Cunha Del Vechio Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Paranaense (UNIPAR), Umuarama, PR, Brazil.
  • Daniela Dib Gonçalves Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência Animal com Ênfase em Produtos Bioativos, Universidade Paranaense (UNIPAR), Umuarama, PR, Brazil.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.86779

Abstract

Background: The indiscriminate use of antibiotics both in humans and in animals, has contributed to the development of bacterial resistance. One of the key mechanisms in the resistance of enterobacteria to antibiotics is the production of extendedspectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), which reduce the therapeutic options available. Several studies have been performed in different animal species in order to isolate and identify multidrug-resistant strains and determine their antibiotic sensitivity profile. The purpose of this study was to detect ESBL-producing enterobacteria in isolates from a pet blue-fronted amazon parrot.

Case: A 16-year-old pet blue-fronted-amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) weighing 0.445 kg, from the city of Presidente Castelo Branco, Paraná, Brazil, was admitted into a specialized veterinary clinic in the city of Maringá. This parrot was presented with agitation and aggressive behavior. It was fed with sunflower seeds, and its cage was small and unsanitary especially in the feeding and drinking areas, which were heavily contaminated with feces. The parrot had been diagnosed with acute sinusitis approximately one year prior, with a history of treatment with tylosin, thuya (a herbal remedy popularly used for fowl pox), and a mineral-vitamin complex. The clinical symptoms included dyspnea and bilateral increase of facial swelling, with a mass in the peri-nasal region. A membranous red tissue not related to the nictitating membrane was observed in the lower left eyelid. To obtain a better clinical evaluation, the bird was anesthetized with an intramuscular injection of dextroketamine 50 mg/kg (KetaminS+™). Subsequently, physical examination, head radiographic examinations, and an attempt at sinus draining were performed. The radiographic examinations showed a decreased amount of air in the nasal sinuses. For treatment, oral itraconazole and vitamin A were prescribed, and a dietary improvement, prioritizing the offering of fruits and industrialized food for parrots was proposed. Samples were collected from the cloaca and choanae by making rotating movements with compressed sterile swabs in the corresponding locations. All samples were kept in Amies transport media with activated coal and forwarded under refrigeration to the Laboratory of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Public Health in the Post-Graduation Program in Animal Sciences with Emphasis in Bioactive Products at Universidade Paranaense (UNIPAR).

Discussion: The samples were subjected to phenotypic antimicrobial sensitivity tests and phenotypic testing for detecting ESBL-producing strains. Escherichia coli was identified and isolated from the cloacal sample. Phenotypic tests for antimicrobial sensitivity, detected resistance to the following antimicrobials: ceftriaxone, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, cefepime, ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanate, and tetracycline. The phenotypic test for detecting ESBL-producing strains was positive. The findings in this study had no relation with the clinical symptoms presented by the parrot. However, in the samples collected, it was possible to detect the presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, indicating that this parrot had strains in its cloacal microbiota that were either multidrug-resistant or at a subclinical stage of an infection. This knowledge is important, since the presence of this bacteria in a pet represents an important factor in the dissemination of multidrug-resistant strains into the environment, as well as being a source of contamination for both humans and other animals.

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Published

2018-01-01

How to Cite

Lopes, K. F. C., Moura, R. A., Germano, R. de M., Pachaly, J. R., dos Santos, I. C., Martins, L. de A., Del Vechio, M. A. C., & Gonçalves, D. D. (2018). Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases from a Pet Blue-Fronted-Amazon Parrot (Amazona aestiva). Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 46, 5. https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.86779

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