Trypanosoma vivax in Dairy Cattle
AbstractBackground: Trypanosoma vivax is a protozoan that causes reproductive disorders and decreased production in domestic and wild ungulate animals. The bovine are the main hosts of the disease and the transmission occurs by the bite of hematophagous insects, mainly tabanids. Several diagnostic techniques can be used to detect the parasite, both in parasitological
form and by serological kits. In Brazil, the disease has been reported in bovines, goats and sheep of some states, with high morbidity and mortality and due to the scarcity of results on the epidemiology of the disease, this work had the objective to report the presence of T. vivax in a female bovine of a dairy herd in Parnaíba county, Piauí.
Case: The animal naturally infected by Trypanosoma vivax, was a three-year-old cow from a dairy farm in the Parnaíba county, located in the north of Piauí state. The farm had a herd whith 62.20% of young Girolando breed cows and the breeding system used was semi-confinement, with two mechanical milking per day. At the time of a Veterinarian’s technical
visit to the property, it was observed the occurrence of abortions, mastitis, estrus repetitions and cows with hematuria, leading to the suspicion of the bovine leptospirosis occurrence. Blood samples were collected from 78 cows from the herd for hematological, biochemical and serological tests, and 72 (92.30%) were reactive to some Leptospira serovars. All the exams were carried out at the Federal University of Piauí (UFPI). In the group of animals negative for leptospirosis, a female was diagnosed positive for bovine trypanosomiasis, confirming the result in the blood smear. This animal had no clinical signs characteristic of the disease at the time of the evaluation.
Discussion: Blood trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma vivax were visualized on several slides of the animal smear and all the morphological structures of the parasite found were clearly seen under microscopyas described in the literature. The hematological alterations observed were normochromic normocytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis due to
lymphocytosis, monocytosis and eosinophilia. The anemia and leukocytosis clinical condition found in the specific animal is commonly found in bovines naturally infected by trypanosomiasis in the chronic phase of the disease. The results of the serum biochemistry revealed decreased blood glucose and increased renal and hepatic parameters, as well as the inversion of the albumin-globulin ratio. Similar laboratory results were also described previously. The animal had a good body score, a good diet and showed no clinical signs of the disease. A good nutrition may have controlled the T. vivax parasitaemia, avoiding the characterization of the clinical condition. This fact can be attributed to the differences in pathogenicity of the parasite and/or susceptibility of a particular host. In the area of the farm where the cattle were housed the presence of
several tabanids was noticed and the increase of these insects in the environment is considered a risk factor, predisposing, even, the occurrence of new outbreaks. The epidemiological situation of the disease in Brazil is described, for the most part, by reports of outbreaks or specific events, revealing the lack of more consistent studies. With this result it is known
that trypanosomiasis exists in the dairy herd of the state of Piauí, being important to carry out new work to diagnose the epidemiological situation of the disease within the productive context of our region.
Keywords: bovine, dairy herd, trypanosomiasis.
Bastos T.S.A., Faria A.M., Madrid D.M.C., Bessa L.C., Linhares G.F.C., Fidelis Jr. O.L., Sampaio P.H., Cruz B.C., Cruvinel L.B., Nicaretta J.E., Machado R.Z., Costa A.J.D. & Lopes W.D.Z. 2017. First outbreak and subsequent cases of Trypanosoma vivax in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária. 26(3): 366-371.
Batista J.S., Bezerra F.S.B., Lira R.A., Carvalho J.R.G., Rosado Neto A.M., Petri A.A. & Teixeira M.M.G. 2008. Aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos e patológicos da infecção natural em bovinos por Trypanosoma vivax na Paraíba. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 28(1): 63-69.
Batista J.S., Freitas C.I.A., Silva J.B., Cavalcante T.V., Paiva K.A.R., Lopes F.C. & Lira R. 2017. Clinical evaluation and reproductive indices of dairy cows naturally infected with Trypanosoma vivax. Semina: Ciências Agrárias. 38(5): 3031-3038.
Borges L.P.B., Almeida A.P.A., Teixeira P.P.M., Mariano R.S.G., Barros F.F.P.C. & Pereira L.F. 2017. Tripanossomíase bovina na região de Ibiraci/MG - relato de caso. Revista Acadêmica Ciência Animal. 15(Supl 2): S337-338.
Cadioli F.A., Barnabé P.A., Machado R.Z., Teixeira M.C.A., André M.R., Sampaio P.H., Fidelis Jr. O.L., Teixeira M.M.G. & Marques L.C. 2012. First report of Trypanosoma vivax outbreak in dairy cattle in São Paulo state, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária. 21(2): 118-124.
Costa R.V.C., Abreu A.P.M., Machado M.N., Thomé S.M.G., Massard C.L., Santos H.A. & Brito M.F. 2016. Tripanossomíase em bovinos no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 36: 161-163.
Faine S., Adler B., Bolin C. & Perolat P. 1999. Leptospira and Leptospirosis. 2nd edn. Melbourne: Medisci Press, 272p.
Fidelis Jr. O.L., Sampaio P.H., Machado R.Z., Andre M.R., Marques L.C. & Cadioli F.A. 2016. Evaluation of clinical signs, parasitemia, hematologic and biochemical changes in cattle experimentally infected with Trypanosoma
vivax. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária. 25(1): 69-81.
Germano P.H.V., Silva A.A., Edler G.E.C. & Lopes L.O. 2017. Aspectos patológicos e clínicos de uma bezerra Holandesa infectada naturalmente por Tripanosoma sp. na região do Alto Paranaíba/MG. Revista Acadêmica Ciência Animal. 15 (Suppl. 2): S609-S610.
Guerra N.R., Monteiro M.F.M., Sandes H.M.M, Cruz N.L.N., Ramos C.A.N., Santana V.L.A., Souza M.M.A. & Alves L.C. 2013. Detecção de anticorpos IgG anti-Trypanosoma vivax em bovinos através do teste de Imunofluorescência Indireta. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 33(12): 1423-1426.
IBGE. 2015. Censo Agropecuário Parnaíba. [Fonte: <https://cidades.ibge.gov.br/brasil/pi/parnaiba/pesquisa/24/27745>].
[Accessed online in May 2017].
Madruga C.R. 2009. Epidemiologia do Trypanosoma vivax no Brasil. Ciência Animal Brasileira. 0(0): 1-10.
Meneses R.M. 2016. Tripanossomose Bovina em Minas Gerais, 2011: Soroprevalência e fatores de risco. 61f. Belo Horizonte, MG. Tese (Doutor em Ciência Animal) - Escola de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
Monteiro S.G. 2014. Parasitologia na Medicina Veterinária. São Paulo: Roca, 356p.
Ono M.S.B., Souto P.C., Cruz J.A.L.O., Guerra N.R., Guimarães J.A., Dantas A.C., Alves L.C. & Rizzo H. 2017. Surto de Trypanosoma vivax em rebanhos bovinos na Zona da Mata do estado de Pernambuco. Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE). 11(2): 96-101.
Perinotto A.R.C. 2013. Investigando a comunicação turística de Parnaíba/PI-Brasil: internet e redes sociais, descrição e análise. Revista de Investigación en turismo y desarrollo local. 6(15): 1-25.
Sampaio P.H. 2013. Resposta imune-humoral e proteinogramas séricos de bovinos naturalmente infectados pelo Trypanosoma vivax. 58f. Jaboticabal, SP. Dissertação (Mestrado em Medicina Veterinária) - Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”.
Schenk M.A., Mendonça S.L., Madruga C.R., Kohayagawa A. & Araújo F.R. 2001. Avaliação clínico-laboratorial de bovinos nelore infectados experimentalmente com Trypanossoma vivax. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 21(4): 157-163.
Silva A.S.D., Costa M.M., Polenz M.F., Polenz C.H., Teixeira M.M.G., Lopes S.T.D.A. & Monteiro S.G. 2009. Primeiro registro de Trypanosoma vivax em bovinos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Ciência Rural. 39(8):2550-2554.
Thrall M.A. 2007. Hematologia e Bioquímica Clínica Veterinária. São Paulo: Roca, 582p.
Vieira O.L.E., Macedo L.O., Santos M.A.B., Silva J.A.B.A., Mendonça C.L., Faustino M.A.G., Ramos C.A.N., Alves L.C., Ramos R.A.N. & Carvalho G.A. 2017. Detection and molecular characterization of Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax in dairy cattle in the state of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology. 26(4): 516-520.
How to Cite
This journal provides open access to all of its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Such access is associated with increased readership and increased citation of an author's work. For more information on this approach, see the Public Knowledge Project and Directory of Open Access Journals.
We define open access journals as journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access. From the BOAI definition of "open access" we take the right of users to "read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles" as mandatory for a journal to be included in the directory.
La Red y Portal Iberoamericano de Revistas Científicas de Veterinaria de Libre Acceso reúne a las principales publicaciones científicas editadas en España, Portugal, Latino América y otros países del ámbito latino