One-stage Laparoscopic Nephrectomy and Ovariohysterectomy for Concurrent Dioctophymosis and Pyometra in a Bitch
AbstractBackground: Dioctophyme renale, also known as “giant kidney worm”, is a cosmopolitan parasite, which usually affects domestic and wildlife canids in wetlands. Nephrotomy and nephrectomy are the only treatment options. Laparoscopic nephrectomy for dioctophymosis was first performed in veterinary patients in the late 90’s. Canine pyometra is one of the
most frequent surgical disorder in the small animal setting. The purpose of this study was to report a case of successful one-stage laparoscopic approach for nephrectomy and ovariohysterectomy in a bitch.
Case: A female stray dog, rescued from a riverside community, was presenting hematuria. Abdominal echography revealed presence of Dioctophyme renale worms within the right renal parenchyma. Moreover, the uterus was moderately filled by anechoic content. The patient was clinically stable and undergone laparoscopy. A 10-mm trocar was established at the middle third of the right flank, followed by 12-mmHg CO2 insufflation. The telescope was inserted and a giant worm was
seen free within the abdominal cavity. A second 10-mm port was inserted cranial and dorsally to the first one. The parasite was retrieved using a laparoscopic Kelly forceps. A third 5-mm trocar was inserted in a classic laparoscopic triangulation port positioning. Renal artery and vein were individually triple ligated using titanium clips and then transected. The right
ovarian pedicle was sequentially coagulated and transected using laparoscopic bipolar forceps. The right kidney was then dissected and detached from the abdominal wall, followed by cauterization and transection of the left ovarian pedicle. The uterus was exposed out of the abdominal cavity through the 5-mm port access. Uterine body and vessels were double ligated using polyglactin 910, with transfixating ligatures, and then transected. The opening of the retrieval bag was exposed through the cranial port site incision. Eight dioctophyme worms and the kidney sections were withdrawn through the sacusing a Kelly hemostat. Abdominal wounds were closed in two layers using cross-mattress polyglactin 910 sutures. Skin
was closed using interrupted horizontal mattress nylon sutures. Patient was discharged on the early post-op, receiving tramadol chloride and sodium dipyrone for three days and enrofloxacin for seven days. The patient recovered uneventfully. Owner was contacted by phone eight months following surgery, which informed the bitch was clinically stable.
Discussion: Riverside stray dogs present high incidence of dioctophymosis worldwide, due to irregular feeding and consequent intake of intermediate hosts. The reported patient met those features, without previous background regarding infestation episode. It presented hematuria, which usually results from renal parenchyma consumption by the worms. The patient was retrieved nine dioctophyme worms. Laparoscopic approach for nephrectomy has already been reported in veterinary patients, as well as three-port lap-assisted OVH have been performed. Innovative aspect of this case report concerns the one-stage laparoscopic approach for both nephrectomy and OVH. Moreover, the procedures required only three-port access, which was considered a suitable and safe minimally invasive approach in dogs affected by Dioctophyme renale and concurrent indication for OVH. The three-port access shown is adequate to perform one-stage nephrectomy and ovariohysterectomy in bitches, for reaching benefits of laparoscopic surgery in comparison to conventional approaches.
Keywords: canine, endosurgery, kidney, laparoscopy, videosurgery.
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