Ovarian and Uterine Horn Agenesis Accompanied by Ectopic Fetal Mummifcation in Canine
AbstractBackground: The uterine horn agenesis or aplasia is a rare anomaly consisting of absence or incomplete development of the paramesonephric ducts that origin the uterine horns. This change occurs during fetal formation and may occur concomitantly to agenesis of the ovary and/or ipsilateral kidney. The extra-uterine pregnancy consists of fetal growth outside the uterine cavity and can occur as a tubal or abdominal pregnancy. We report here the case of a 7-years-old mix breed dog, attended at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, with accidental diagnosis of agenesis of uterine horn and ovaries and ectopic fetal mummifcation.
Case: A 7-years-old mix breed dog, not spayed, was attended at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (HOVET-UFMT), complaining of mucous bloody vaginal discharge. The patient had regular estrus and was multiparous. There was no mating history in the last estrus neither trauma over the past months. In previous pregnancies the patient
presented eutocic labors. On physical examination the dog showed apathy although it was alert, pale mucous membranes, presence of perivulvar blackish secretion and discreet abdominal enlargement. As preoperative exams, a complete blood count, liver and renal function (serum creatinine and alanine aminotransferase) were performed. It has also performed
the abdominal ultrasound examination, which revealed the presence of uterus flled with hypoechoic luminal content and a thickened and irregular wall. The patient was referred to therapeutic ovariohysterectomy (OHE). After anesthesia and antisepsis, the access to the abdominal cavity was made, where there was a mummifed fetus with approximately 15.5 cm
from neck to tail set, equivalent to 57 days of gestation. After removal of the papyraceus fetus, the uterus was found and then, when exposed, there was only the left uterine horn flled by content and ovarie, both were removed. After inspection, the synthesis of the abdominal cavity was carried out as the routine. During the postoperative period, the patient had no complications or other clinical signs similar to those observed in the initial presentation. Antibiotic (enroﬂoxacin 5 mg/kg every 12h), analgesic (dipyrone 20 mg/kg every 8 h) and non-steroidal anti-inﬂammatory (meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg every 24 h) were prescribed. The fetus and uterus were sent to the Veterinary Pathology UFMT Laboratory (PVL-HOVET).
The fetus was covered by omentum and fat. After the initial incision, there was a hard fbrous capsule surrounding the mummifed fetus. There were no recent signs of rupture or scarring resulting from previous trauma in the uterus. Its size was 15x4.8x2.8 cm and it was flled out with mucus bloody brownish secretion (pyometra). Microscopically, had purulent inﬂammatory infltrate, diffuse and severe in mucosa and submucosa associated with cell debris and moderate hyperplasia glands containing microabscesses inside.
Discussion: Reports of extra-uterine fetal mummifcation in dogs and cats are scarce. Even being reported infrequently in dogs if congenital uterine and ovarian abnormalities are found during surgery, a detailed inspection of the abdominal cavity should be performed in order to rule out the possible presence of the ipsilateral ovary. Even with the lack of specifc clinical signs, fetal ectopy can be diagnosed through a detailed clinical examination and image exams. Exploratory laparotomy can be used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool, since the treatment is the excision of ectopic tissue and OHE in cases of uterine rupture.
Keywords: aplasia, fetus, mummifcation, unicornuate uterus.
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