Intermuscular Lipoma in Dogs
AbstractBackground: Lipoma is a benign tumor composed of mature adipose tissue commonly found in subcutaneous tissues. However, eventually, lipomas may be located between the muscle fasciae being classifed as intermuscular lipomas. Complete surgical resection of the tumor mass is indicated as a treatment of affected patients.This report describes fve cases of intermuscular lipoma in dogs, due to the scarcity of data in the literature and lipoma relative importance in the clinical and surgical routine.
Case: Five dogs were presented with a history of a large volume in the limbs with progressive growth, suggesting the presence of neoplasia. The frst step was to conduct anamnesis, when the owner reported slow growth, absence of pain, limping and licking of site. No other change was observed upon physical examination. Complete blood count (CBC) as well as liver assessment (FA) and renal (creatinine) were performed in all patients, and the results showed no changes. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed and showed cells from adipose tissue, followed by histopathological examination of the lesions. Histopathological examination after incisional biopsy of the tumors showed malignancy-free
tissue, composed of adipocytes without atypia, interspersed with fbrovascular stroma, confrming the lipoma diagnosis.
Intermuscular lipomas were diagnosed in fve dogs with a history of a large volume in the limbs with progressive growth; all of them underwent bloc resection of the tumors. In all cases, the intermuscular lipomatous tumors were well-circumscribed and easily isolated from the tissues.
Discussion: Although lipomas are relatively common in older dogs, especially in the subcutaneous tissue, intermuscular subtype is rare in veterinary medicine, which justifes the report of these cases. Intermuscular lipomas account for only 0.3% of the occurrences in human medicine. Morphologically described as tumors of slow and progressive evolution, typically reaching sizes up to 2 cm in humans, the particular cases of tumor masses greater than 5 cm are called giant lipomas. The
slow development of intermuscular lipomas has also been described in domestic animals by, thus corroborating the clini cal history in this work. The intermuscular septum is considered as the origin of intermuscular lipoma, with subsequent development of the adipose tissue between adjacent muscle bundles, thus, resulting usually in well-circumscribed mass of easy surgical divulsion. The morphological characteristics of the resected lipomas, as well as the simple surgical technique corroborate descriptions in the literature. Intermuscular lipomas consist of a challenging diagnosis despite attracting little attention from surgeons. The possibility of the mass being malignant, such as liposarcoma, should also be considered
since the clinical symptoms consist of swelling of the deep soft tissues. The diagnosis for all these patients was obtained by histopathological examination, since the simple observation of the clinical fndings alone does not support the tumor diagnosis. Lipoma and liposarcoma should be differentiated by cytological and histopathological evaluations of the neo
plasia, whereas infltrative lipomas can be diagnosed based on diagnostic imaging methods or even on the fndings during surgery. In this report, specifcally, the fndings during surgery contributed to the differentiation between infltrative and intermuscular lipoma, while for malignancy rating all patients underwent cytological and histopathological evaluations as
indicated in the literature. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that complete resection of intermuscular lipoma proved to be an effective treatment to cure the patients.
Keywords: benign neoplasm, surgery, resection of intermuscular, canine.
Case J.B., Macphail C.M. & Witrhow S.J. 2012. Anatomic distribution and clinical fndings of intermuscular lipomas in 17 Dogs (2005-2010). Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association. 48(4): 245-249.
Kaeser M.A., Smith L.W. & Kettner N.W. 2010. A case report of an intermuscular lipoma: presentation, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. 9(3): 127-131.
Lahrach K.E.L., Kadi K.I., Mezzani A., Marzouki A. & Boutayeb F. 2013. An unusual case of an intramuscular lipoma of the biceps brachii. The Pan African Medical Journal. 15(4): 1-4.
Lamagna B., Grec A., Guardascione A., Navas L., Ragozzino M., Paciello O., Brunetti A. & Meomartino L. 2012. Canine lipomas treated with steroid injections: clinical fndings. PlosOne. 7(11): 1-5.
Liptak J.M. & Forrest L.J. 2007. Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Overview and Surgical Management. In: Withrow S.J & Vail D.M. (Eds). Small Animal Clinical Oncology. 4th edn. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier, pp.425-454.
Liu D.R., Li C. & Chen L. 2013. Management of giant intermuscular lipoma of hips: A case report and review of literature. Molecular and Clinical Oncology. 1: 369-372.
Nishida J., Morita T., Ogose A., Okada K., Kakizaki H., Tajino T., Hatori M. & Orui H. 2007. Imaging characteristics of deep-seated lipomatous tumors: Intramuscular lipoma, intermuscular lipoma, and lipoma-like lipossarcoma.
Journal of Orthopaedic Science. 12(6): 533-541.
Ramírez G.A., Altimira J., García B. & Vilafranca M. 2010. Chondro-osteoblastic metaplasia in canine benign cutaneous lipomas. Journal of Comparative Pathology. 142(1): 89-93.
Tallini A. & Tan S.T. 2006. Case report: Giant intermuscular lipoma of the forearm. Surgical Practice. 10(3): 120-122.
How to Cite
This journal provides open access to all of its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Such access is associated with increased readership and increased citation of an author's work. For more information on this approach, see the Public Knowledge Project and Directory of Open Access Journals.
We define open access journals as journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access. From the BOAI definition of "open access" we take the right of users to "read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles" as mandatory for a journal to be included in the directory.
La Red y Portal Iberoamericano de Revistas Científicas de Veterinaria de Libre Acceso reúne a las principales publicaciones científicas editadas en España, Portugal, Latino América y otros países del ámbito latino