Immunohistochemical Detection of Viral Etiopathogenesis in Lambs and Goat Kids with Neonatal Diarrhea
Background: Neonatal enteritis is an important disease that causes deaths of animals before 3 weeks of age, and results in significant economic losses. Viral agents can predispose the young animals to secondary infections in the gastrointestinal tract, especially in lambs and goat kids younger than 21 days. Although the neonatal diarrhea is common in calves, there is still little knowledge about pathology, pathogenesis and immunohistochemical localization of viral agents that cause neonatal enteritis in lambs and goat kids. In this study, we carried out investigations with the aim of detecting adenovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus and herpes virus in the guts of goat kids and lambs with viral enteritis.
Materials, Methods & Results: Adenovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus and herpes virus antisera were applied to paraffin-embedded intestinal tissue from neonatal lambs and kids that had died from enteritis. In addition, viral agents in the gut cells were detected and evaluated by electron microscopy. The study material consisted of 15 lambs and 15 goat kids that were presented for diagnosis. Viral agents were detected by immunohistochemically in 20 out of 30 animals. Rotavirus was diagnosed in 10 animals, adenovirus in five, herpes virus in three and coronavirus in two animals; and these results were supported by the electron microscopy. This study showed that viral agents play an important role in neonatal enteritis in lambs and kids.
Discussion: Bacteria, viruses and protozoa may have a role in the etiology of neonatal enteritis and identifying the etiological agents is not always possible without laboratory studies. In addition, the immune system of the animal and environmental factors are important factors for to occurrence of the disease. The ages of the animals in present study varied between 1 and 21 days, but susceptibility to infection was most commonly observed between the ages of 1 and 12 days, and the infected animals immediately died after the appearance of clinical symptoms during this period. The most common clinical symptoms were fever, depression, dehydration, tenesmus, abdominal swelling and loss of appetite. Histopathological examinations revealed mild to severe lesions in the gut samples including hyperemia of vessels, submucosal edema, desquamation, erosion and ulcers of the epithelial layer of the gut, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the submucosa. Enlargement of mucus-secreting cells was most commonly observed. These results are common in neonatal enteritis and an agreement with previous studies and classical knowledge about clinical and pathological findings in this study. The agents of neonatal diarrhea most often isolated in calves are rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. A diagnosis of viral agents can be made by immunohistochemical examination of tissue fixed in formalin. This study revealed that the most common viral agents in lambs and goat kids neonatal diarrhea was rotavirus. In this study, protozoal and bacterial contamination was also observed. Our current study also showed that coronavirus is not an important etiological factor, compared with other viral causes of diarrhea in small ruminants. However, according to a previous study by our group, its incidence has increased and may be an important viral agent in neonatal enteritis in the future. This study showed that viral etiology was very important to occurring of neonatal diarrhea, practitioners must be taken into consideration when meet this problem. One of the most important prophylactic measurements may be vaccination pregnant sheep or goat for passive immunity of offspring.
Abou El Hassan D.G. 1996. Neonatal diarrhoea in lambs and goat kids. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Scientific Congress, Veterinary Medicine and Human Health (Cairo, Egypt). pp.371-380.
Andrés S., Jiménez A., Sánchez J., Alonso J.M., Gomeza L., Lopez F. & Rey J. 2007. Evaluation of some etiological factors predisposing to diarrhoea in lambs in “La Serena” (Southwest Spain). Small Ruminant Research. 70(2-3): 272-275.
Blood D.C. & Radostits O.M. 1989. Disease of the nervous system. In: Blood D.C. & Radostits O.M. (Eds). Veterinary Medicine. 2nd edn. London: Bailliere and Tindall, pp.619-821.
Blood D.C. 1997. Pocket Companion to Veterinary Medicine. London: Bailliere Tindall, pp.458-459.
Brown C.C., Barker D.C. & Barker I.K. 2007. Alimentary Systems. In: Maxie M.G. (Ed). Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier, pp.135-177.
Daginakatte G.C., Chard-Bergstrom C., Andrews G.A. & Kapil S. 1999. Production, characterisation, and uses of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant nucleoprotein of elk coronavirus. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunolgy. 6(3): 341-344.
Durham P.J.K., Stevenson B.J. & Farquharson B.C. 1979. Rotavirus and Coronavirus associated diarrhoea in domestic animals. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 27(3): 30-32.
Eisa M.I. & Mohamed A.A. 2004. Role of enteric pathogens in enteritis in lambs, goat kids and children and their zoonotic importance. Veterinary Medical Journal of Giza. 52(1): 41-59.
Gelberg H.B. 2001. Alimentary System. In: McGavin M.D., Carlton W.W. & Zachary J.F. (Eds). Thomson’s Special Veterinary Pathology. Saint Louis: Mosby, pp.48-50.
Gokce E. & Erdogan H.M. 2009. An epidemiological study on neonatal lamb healthy. Kafkas University Veterinary Faculty Journal. 15(2): 225 236.
Hervas J., Lopez S., De Lara F.C.M., Carrasco J.A.L. & Gomez-Villamandos J.C. 1998. Adeno-virus infection in Spanish Ibex. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 10(1): 97-100.
Kahn C.M. & Line S. 2005. Merck Veterinary Manual. 9th edn. Wellington: Merck, 2700p.
Lehmkuhl H.D., Debey B.M. & Cutlip R.C. 2001. A new serotype adenovirus isolated from a goat in the United States. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 13(3): 195-200.
Martellaa V., Decaroa N. & Buonavoglia C. 2015. Enteric viral infections in lambs or kids. Veterinary Microbiology. 181(1-2): 154-160.
Matthijnssens J., Potgieter C.A., Ciarlet M., Parreño V., Martella V., Bányai K., Garaicoechea L., Palombo E.A., Novo L., Zeller M., Arista S., Gerna G., Rahman M. & Van Ranst M. 2009. Are human P rotavirus strains the result of interspecies transmissions from sheep or other ungulates that belong to the mammalian order Artiodactyla? Journal of Virology. 83(7): 2917-2929.
Munoz M., Alvarez M., Lanza I. & Carmenes P. 1996. Role of enteric pathogens in the aetiology of neonatal diarrhoea in lambs and goat kids in Spain. Epidemiology and Infection. 117(1): 203-211.
Naylor J.M. 1990. Diarrhoea in Neonatal Ruminants. In: Smith B.P. (Ed). Large Animal Internal Disease. Saint Louis: Mosby Publishing, pp.348-353.
Olson E.J., Haskell S.R.R., Frank R.K., Lehmkuhl H.D., Ann Hobbs L., Warg J.V., Landgraf J.G. & Wunschmann A. 2004. Isolation of an adenovirus and an adeno-associated virus from goat kids with enteritis. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 16(5): 461-464.
Ozmen O., Yukari B.A., Haligur M. & Sahinduran S. 2006. Observations and immunohistochemical detection of coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis in neonatal diarrhoea in lambs and kids. Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde. 148(7): 357-364.
Papp H., Malik Y., Farkas S., Jakab F., Martella V. & Banyai K. 2014. Rotavirus strains in neglected animal species, including lambs, goats and camelids. Virus Disease. 25(2): 215-222.
Steele A.D., Geyer A. & Gerdes G.H. 2004. Rotavirus Infections. In: Coetzer J.A.W. & Tustin R.C. (Eds). Infectious Diseases of Livestock. New York: Oxford University Press, pp.1256-1264.
How to Cite
This journal provides open access to all of its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Such access is associated with increased readership and increased citation of an author's work. For more information on this approach, see the Public Knowledge Project and Directory of Open Access Journals.
We define open access journals as journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access. From the BOAI definition of "open access" we take the right of users to "read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles" as mandatory for a journal to be included in the directory.
La Red y Portal Iberoamericano de Revistas Científicas de Veterinaria de Libre Acceso reúne a las principales publicaciones científicas editadas en España, Portugal, Latino América y otros países del ámbito latino