Calcium and Magnesium Urinary Excretion in Dairy Cows with Different Fee of Glucose Metabolization

Elizabeth Schwegler, Paula Montagner, Eduardo Schmitt, Augusto Schneider, Marina Menoncin Weschenfelder Rohenkohl, Ana Rita Tavares Krause, Rubens Alves Pereira, Jéssica Halfen, Francisco Augusto Burkert Del Pinto, Marcio Nunes Corrêa

Abstract


Background: The post-partum period in dairy cows is accompanied by a low glucose metabolism in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle tissue, being glucose conducted to the milk production. In humans, low glucose metabolism is associated with metabolic syndromes, the high glucose levels reduce tubular reabsorption of Magnesium (Mg) and Calcium (Ca), leading to hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia. These minerals are important to the dairy cow, as their decrease leads to diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between glucose metabolism rate with the urinary excretion of Ca and Mg in multiparous dairy cows during the post-partum period.

Materials, Methods & Results: Twenty dairy cows were used from a commercial farm southern Brazil, in the semi-extensive system. Glucose tolerance tests were performed (TTG) on day 9 relative to calving. The cows were categorized into three groups according to the glucose metabolism rate (area under the glucose curve, glucose half-life and glucose consumption rate): High Glucose Metabolization (GA); Intermediate Glucose Metabolizing (GI); and Low Glucose Metabolization (GL). Blood and urine samples were collected on days 0, + 3, + 6, + 9, +16 and +2 3 in relation to calving for to determine the levels of Ca, Mg, insulin (Ins), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and Glu. In urine was evaluated the excretion of Ca and Mg. The cows were milked twice a day (at 3:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m.) and the milk yield (kg/cow) was recorded daily and averages were generated every five days from day 15 to day 60 postpartum. The statistical analyses were performed with the MIXED procedure to assess the main effect of group, time (in days) and their interaction by using version 9.2 SAS software. The influence of the different rates of glucose metabolism on milk production was observed, the GB group had a production than GH group (30.88 ± 1.44 kg vs 23.96 ± 1.43 kg, P < 0.01), but did not differ from GI. The GL group showed higher levels of Glu compared to GA (P < 0.05). The plasma Ca levels were higher in GL (P < 0.05) compared with GH. The NEFA, insulin, and excretion of minerals did not differ between groups (P > 0.05).

Discussion: The low glucose metabolism in humans causes an increase in the excretion of Ca and Mg urine, however, in the animals studied, these changes were not observed. This result can be attributed to the fact that insulin resistance is transitory in dairy cattle. The higher glucose levels in the GL group are related due to the lower capacity of glucose entry in the peripheral tissues (adipose and skeletal muscle), which reflected in the higher milk production observed this group. However, the higher calcium concentrations were not expected, since the release of insulin by β-pancreatic cells is dependent on calcium. Possibly, these higher calcium levels in GB, are related to higher milk production, requiring a greater amount of calcium for the production of casein, increasing bone mobilization, intestinal absorption. The energy metabolites, non-esterified fatty acids and insulin, did not differ between groups, suggesting that the animals did not present different metabolic conditions. We conclude that multiparous dairy cows with low glucose metabolism rate (GB) have higher levels of glucose after delivery and increased milk production. The metabolism rate of glucose did not influence the excretion of the Ca and Mg minerals.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Ballou M.A., Gomes R.C., Juchem S.O. & DePeters E.J. 2009. Effects of dietary supplemental fish oil during the peripartum period on blood metabolites and hepatic fatty acid compositions and total triacylglycerol concentrations of multiparous Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 92(2): 657-669.

Barbagallo M., Dominguez L.J., Galioto A., Ferlisi A., Cani C., Malfa L., Pineo A., Busardo’ A. & Paolisso G. 2003. Role of magnesium in insulin action, diabetes and cardio-metabolic syndrome X. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 24(1-3): 39-52.

De Koster J.D. & Opsomer G. 2013. Insulin resistance in dairy cows. The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice. 29(2): 299-322.

Defronzo R.A., Goldberg M. & Agus Z.S. 1976. The Effects of Glucose and Insulin Electrolyte Transport Renal. American Society for Clinical Investigation 58(1): 83-90.

Geloneze B. & Tambascia M.A. 2006. Avaliação Laboratorial e Diagnóstico da Resistência Insulínica. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia. 50(2): 207-215.

Grapov D., Adams S.H., Pedersen T.L., Garvey W.T. & Newman J.W. 2012. Type 2 Diabetes Associated Changes in the Plasma Non-Esterified Fatty Acids, Oxylipins and Endocannabinoids. PLoS ONE. 7(11): 1-11.

Hoenderop J.G.J. & Bindels R.J.M. 2005. Epithelial Ca2+ and Mg2+ channels in health and disease. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 16(1): 15-26.

Holtenius K., Kronqvist C., Briland E. & Spörndly R. 2008. Magnesium absorption by lactating dairy cows on a grass silage-based diet supplied with different potassium and magnesium levels. Journal of Dairy Science. 91(2): 743-748.

Jawerbaum A. & White V. 2010. Animal models in diabetes and pregnancy. Endocrine Reviews. 31(5): 680-701.

Kahn C.R. 1978. Insulin resistance, insulin insensitivity, and insulin unresponsiveness: a necessary distinction. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental. 27(2): 1893-1902.

Kerestes M., Faigl V., Kulcsár M., Balogh O., Földi J., Fébel H., Chilliard Y. & Huszenicza G. 2009. Periparturient insulin secretion and whole-body insulin responsiveness in dairy cows showing various forms of ketone pattern with or without puerperal metritis. Domestic Animal Endocrinology. 37(4): 250-261.

Lewis G.F., Carpentier A., Adeli K. & Giacca A. 2002. Disordered fat storage and mobilization in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine Reviews. 23(2): 201-29.

Littell R.C., Henry P.R. & Ammerman C.B. 1998. Statistical analysis of repeated measures data using SAS procedures. American Society of Animal Science. 76(4): 1216-1231.

McNair P., Christiansen C., Madsbad S., Lauritzen E., Faber O., Binder C. & Transbøl I. 1978. Hypomagnesemia, a risk factor in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes. 27(11): 1075-1077.

Oikawa S. & Oetzel G.R. 2006. Decreased insulin response in dairy cows following a four-day fast to induce hepatic lipidosis. Journal of Dairy Science. 89(8): 2999-3005.

Raboisson D., Mounié M. & Maigné E. 2014. Diseases, reproductive performance, and changes in milk production associated with subclinical ketosis in dairy cows: a meta-analysis and review. Journal of Dairy Science. 97(12): 7547-7563.

Regnault T.R.H., Oddy H.V., Nancarrow C., Sriskandarajah N. & Scaramuzzi R.J. 2004. Glucose-stimulated insulin response in pregnant sheep following acute suppression of plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2(64): 1-10.

Roche J.R., Friggens N.C., Kay J.K., Fisher M.W., Stafford K.J. & Berry D.P. 2009. Invited review: Body condition score and its association with dairy cow productivity, health, and welfare. Journal of Dairy Science. 92(12): 5769-5801.

Roeder B.L., Su C.L. & Schaalje G.B. 1997. Acute effects of intravenously administered hypertonic saline solution on transruminal rehydration in dairy cows. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 58(5): 549-554.

Schlumbohm C. & Harmeyer J. 2003. Hypocalcemia reduces endogenous glucose production in hyperketonemic sheep. Journal of Dairy Science. 86(6): 1953-1962.

Schmitt E., Schneider A., Goulart M.A., Schwegler E., Pereira R.A., Hoffmann D.A.C., Lopes M.S., Hax L.T., Del Pino F.A.B. & Corrêa M.N. 2012. Correlação entre cálcio e insulina durante o teste de tolerância à glicose em ovelhas gestantes e não gestantes. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia. 64(5): 1127-1132.

Schonewille J.T. 2013. Magnesium in dairy cow nutrition: An overview. Plant and Soil. 368(1-2): 167-178.

Tabeleão V.C., Pino Goulart M.A., Schwegler E., Weiser M., Moura S.V., Pereira R.A., Del Pino F.A.B. & Correa M.N. 2008. Influência da monensina e levedura sobre parâmetros ruminais e metabólicos em cordeiros semiconfinados. Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences. 30(2): 181-186.

Walz H.A., Wierup N., Vikman J., Manganiello V.C., Degerman E., Eliasson L. & Holst L.S. 2007. β-cell PDE3B regulates Ca2+-stimulated exocytosis of insulin. Cellular Signalling. 19(7): 1505-1513.

Wu Y., Yu T., Zhang X., Liu Y., Li F., Wang Y., Wang Y. & Gong P. 2012. 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits the deleterious effects induced by high glucose on osteoblasts through undercarboxylated osteocalcin and insulin signaling. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 132(1-2): 112-119.

Zachut M., Honig H., Striem S., Zick Y., Boura-Halfon S. & Moallem U. 2013. Periparturient dairy cows do not exhibit hepatic insulin resistance, yet adipose-specific insulin resistance occurs in cows prone to high weight loss. Journal of Dairy Science. 96(9): 5656-5669.

Zhao F.Q. & Keating A.F. 2007. Expression and regulation of glucose transporters in the bovine mammary gland. Journal of Dairy Science. 90(1): 76-86.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.83472

Copyright (c) 2018 Elizabeth Schwegler, Paula Montagner, Eduardo Schmitt, Augusto Schneider, Marina Menoncin Weschenfelder Rohenkohl, Ana Rita Tavares Krause, Rubens Alves Pereira, Jéssica Halfen, Francisco Augusto Burkert Del Pinto, Marcio Nunes Corrêa

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.