Epidemiological Characterization and Risk Assessment Associated with the Presence of Diptera Order in Laying Poultry Farms

Tiago Mendonça de Oliveira, Cristina Mara Teixeira, Isabela de Lourdes Araujo, Leandro do Carmo Rezende, Lucas Maciel Cunha, Rui Pitágoras de Lima Castro Filho, Soraia Araújo Diniz, Marcos Xavier Silva

Abstract


Background: Health aspects of flocks of laying chickens, such as the occurrence of infestations by parasites and poultry pests, influence significantly the productivity indicators. In recent years, Brazilian poultry has gone through a scientific and technological evolution which resulted in high density poultry hens in the laying sheds and an increase of the occurrence of ectoparasites such as Diptera. The presence of these flies have caused negative impacts for poultry farming, since these may be responsible for the increase of stress and disease emergence and, in addition, reduction of productivity. In this context, the control of synanthropic Diptera is one of the challenges of the poultry farmers and professionals of this area. This study was carried to assess and characterize the risks for the presence of flies in chicken houses of laying farms in the state of Minas Gerais.

Materials, Methods & Results: Was used a secondary database and adapted for this study, with information from 402 chicken houses of 42 laying hens commercial properties. The variables used to compose the correspondence model were selected through chi-square tests (P ≤ 0.05). A risk index was built to the presence of flies from variables considered as risk factors for these ectoparasites. In addition, a study of the spatial analysis was carried to evaluate the intensity of chicken houses of poultry farms with the presence of flies. For this, a Kernel map was produced using the QGIZ 2.18.1 software, georreferencing the regions of state of Minas Gerais that have these ectoparasites. It was observed the presence of flies in 253 chicken houses evaluated, which corresponds to a frequency of 62.9%, with the most present flies were Chrysomya spp. 37.3%, M. domestica 34.3%, Fannia spp. 16% and Stomoxys spp. 14%. The graph of the correspondence analysis produced for the epidemiological characterization of the presence of flies presented an accumulated chi-square value of 56.05%. There was an association of the risk index with removal interval and the humidity of the manure and with the type of installation of chicken houses. Farms with chicken houses that create their birds on the ground present a lower risk for the presence of Diptera. In addition, when the removal of the manure is performed manually and is not done periodically, the presence of flies in the chicken houses is observed. It was verified that clusters located in the messoregion south/southwest of Minas Gerais and between the west and metropolitan mesoregion of Belo Horizonte with chicken houses that have the presence of flies.

Discussion: The accumulation and permanence of manure can occur in less technical farms that have laying hens kept in confinement with high densities. In the case of Diptera, the greater the interval of removal of the manure below cages, the greater the risk for their presence, combined with the high densities of the birds that contribute to a faster accumulation of manure. The humidity of the manure is another important factor for the development of flies. The risk is high when chicken feces are liquefied, due to the fact that larvaes of flies need a moist substrate for survival. These results provide knowledge about the epidemiology of flies, in addition to demonstrate the profile of laying farms in the state of Minas Gerais. The implementation of certain management measures and the investment in technification of the chicken houses could reduce the risks of possible infestations in the flocks, besides the negative effects resulting from this ectoparasitism.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Avancini R.M.P. & Silveira G.A.R. 2000. Age structure and abundance in populations of muscoid flies from a poultry facility in Southeast Brazil. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 95(2): 259-264.

Axtell R.C. 1999. Poultry Integrated Pest Management: Status and Future. Integrated Pest Management Reviews. 4(1): 53-73.

Bélo M., Alves S.M. & Pires D.J. 1998. Flutuações e diversidade de espécies de dípteros em granja de galinhas poedeiras. Revista Bioikos, Puc - Campinas. 12(2): 36-44.

Bicho C.L., Almeida L.M., Ribeiro P.B. & Silveira Júnior P. 2004. Flutuação de Díptera em granja avícola em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Iheringia, Série Zoologia. 94(2): 205-210.

Borges M.A.Z. 2006. Flutuação populacional de dípteros muscóides (Diptera: muscomorpha), parasitóide e foréticos predadores Igarapé, MG. 103f. Belo Horizonte, MG. Tese (Doutorado em Ciência Animal) - Escola de

Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.

Bruno T.V., Guimarães A.M.M., Santos A.M.M. & Tucci E.C. 1993. Moscas sinantrópicas (Diptera) e seus predadores que se criam em esterco de aves poedeiras confinadas no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia. 37(3): 577-590.

Brusca R.C. & Brusca G.J. 2003. Invertebrates. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates, 936p.

Cunha L.M. 2013. Aspectos epidemiológicos relacionados à ocorrência de ácaros hematófagos em granjas comerciais de postura no Estado de Minas Gerais e avaliação de armadilhas para captura de Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) (De Geer, 1778). 96f. Belo Horizonte, MG. Tese (Doutorado em Ciência Animal) - Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.

Diniz S.A. 2015. Avaliação de risco à presença de resíduos de avermectinas na carne bovina sob Inspeção Federal associada às práticas de produção pecuária no Brasil entre 2002-2013. 81f. Belo Horizonte, MG. Tese (Doutorado em Ciência Animal) - Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.

Greenberg B. 1971. Flies and diseases. Ecology, Classification and biotic associations. v1. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 865p.

Legner E.F. 1971. Some Effects of the ambient arthropod complex on the density and potential parasitization of muscoid diptera in poultry wastes. Journal of Economic Entomology. 64 (1): 111-115.

Lopes W.D.Z., Costa F.H., Lopes W.C.Z., Balieiro J.C.C., Soares V.E & Prado A.P. 2007. Artrópodes associados ao excremento de aves poedeiras. Neotropical Entomology. 36(4): 597-604.

Lopes W.D.Z., Costa F.H., Lopes W.C.Z., Balieiro J.C.C., Soares V.E & Prado A.P. 2008. Abundância e sazonalidade de dípteros (Insecta) em granja avícola da região nordeste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária. 17(1): 21-27.

Mingoti S.A. 2005. Análise de dados através de métodos de estatística multivariada - uma abordagem aplicada. Belo Horizonte: Editora UFMG, pp.257-267.

North M.O. & Bell D.D. 1990. Commercial chicken production manual. 4th edn. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 422p.

Peck R.F. & Anderson J.R. 1969. Arthropod predators of immature Diptera developing in poultry groupings in Northern California. Journal of Medical Entomology. 6(2): 163-167.

Peck R.F. & Anderson J.R. 1970. Influence of poultry manure removal schedules on various diptera larval and selected arthropod predators. Journal of Economic Entomology. 63(1): 69-71.

Prado A.P. 2003. Controle das principais espécies de moscas em áreas urbanas. Biológico, 65(1-2): 95-97.

QGIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project. 2016. Disponível em: . [Accessed online in October 2016].

Rezende L.C., Oliveira T.M., Teixeira C.M., Pastrana M.E.O., Oliveira P.R., Martins N.R.S. & Cunha L.M. 2018. Occurrence and epidemiology of Fannia spp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) in laying poultry farms in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science [in press].

Santos C.F., Alves V.I.C., Matias L.J., Pereira C.M., Leite L.O. & Borges M.A.Z. 2007. Impacto do tratamento com larvicida no parasitismo de Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) em granja de postura em Montes Claros, MG. In: Anais do VIII Congresso de Ecologia do Brasil, Caxambu - MG. Disponível em [Accessed online in January 2018].

Silveira G.A.R, Madeira N. G, AZeredo-Espin A.M.L. & Pavan C. 1989. Levantamento de microhimenópteros parasitóides de dípteros de importância, médico veterinária no Brasil. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 84(Suppl IV): 505-510.

Soares N.M., Tucci E.C., Guastalli E.A.L. & Yajima H. 2008. Controle da infestação por Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini e Fanzago, 1877) (Acari: Macronyssidae) em poedeiras comerciais utilizando extrato de Azadirachta indica. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária. 17(4): 175- 178.

Stafford K.C. & Bay D.E. 1987. Dispersion and association of house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), larvae and both sexes of Macrocheles muscadomestica (Acari: Macrochelidae) in response to poultry manure moisture, temperature, and accumulation. Environmental Entomology. 16(1): 159-164.

Statacorp LP Stata/SE 12.0. 2012. Análise estatística e gestão de dados. College Station: StataCorp.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.83468

Copyright (c) 2018 Tiago Mendonça de Oliveira, Cristina Mara Teixeira, Isabela de Lourdes Araujo, Leandro do Carmo Rezende, Lucas Maciel Cunha, Rui Pitágoras de Lima Castro Filho, Soraia Araújo Diniz, Marcos Xavier Silva

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.