Evaluation of Ventral Laparoscopic Abomasopexy Using Surgical Staples Associated with Suture Material in Dairy Cattle
Background: Displaced Abomasum is known for being on of the main illnesses that affect milking cows. Increase in diagnosis of this illness is due to advancement in diagnosis techniques. Increase in incidence of this illness can be explained by genetic selection of animals with high production, breed systems and changes to the diet with a higher level of protein. For laparoscopic treatment, several surgical changes were performed to optimize the procedure and thus achieve better results. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate applicability of the ventral laparoscopic abomasopexy technique, using surgical clamps attached to the suture thread, to milking cows.
Materials, Methods & Results: Six adult cows were placed under anesthesia with isoflurane and placed in dorsal decubitus. Animals were kept with no water for 24 h and no food for 48 h. Four laparoscopic accesses were performed. The first one was created with the intention of inspecting the abdominal cavity and the remaining three for access of surgical instruments. Serous membrane of the abomasum was cauterized, combined with suture threads and placed at the greater abomasal curvature. The free part of suture threads was kept out of the abdominal cavity and after traction of the abomasum against the abdominal wall was tied to the skin. Ultrasound exam was performed for abdominal evaluation after abomasopexy. Anesthesia time and surgery time were recorded and analyzes through average and standard deviation (SD). The average anesthesia time recorded was 94 min (SD 14.63 min) and average surgery time was 51 min (SD 14.71 min). The fasting period was considered adequate, however all animals had to undergo intubation with orogastric tube to drain liquids and gas during the procedure. Four of the six animals had lineal adhesion. Three of the four animals that had adhesion did not keep the abomasum at the retroperitoneal area, however viscera movement was stopped in the abdominal cavity.
Discussion: Abomasopexy through laparoscopy is a safe technique, especially when compared with other invasive methods of abomasopexy. However, to perform this type of surgery availability of adequate equipment and a well trained surgical team are required. This study was performed at a surgery room under full anesthesia. In a field situation, the veterinarian can have some difficulties but such adversities must not be considered and impediment for performance of surgery on the field as its performance is possible. Even though surgical clamps were small, they were considered adequate for what was suggested. The applied 0 degree laparoscopic optic presented restrictions for cavity inspection, therefore we believe that an optical lenses with 30 degree angle could facilitate this laparoscopy inspection. To induce greater and more lasting adherence we suggest cauterizing a greater area of the serous membrane of the abomasum. We also suggest not performing this procedure during lactation peak, when fasting and surgery can cause economic losses. Complications associated with this technique could not be avoided. The technique has shown favorable results, but its clinical applicability depends on application on animals subjected to the conditions of a milk production cycle.
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