Essential Oils and Their Bioactive Compounds in the Control of Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Small Ruminants

Weibson Paz Pinheiro André, Wesley Lyeverton Correia Ribeiro, Lorena Mayana Beserra de Oliveira, Iara Tersia Freitas Macedo, Fernanda Cristina Macedo Rondon, Claudia Maria Leal Bevilaqua

Abstract


Background: Gastrointestinal nematodes are one of the major health and economic problem of sheep and goats in the world. The control of these nematodes is carried out conventionally with synthetic anthelminths, which favored the selection of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) populations multiresistant to anthelmintics. The emergence of anthelmintic resistance has stimulated the search for new alternatives to control small ruminant GIN, standing out the use of plants and their bioactives compounds, such as essential oils (EO). The objective of this review was to present the main characteristics and anthelmintic activity of EO, their isolated compounds and drug delivery systems in the control of GIN.

Review: Essential oils are a complex blend of bioactive compounds with volatile, lipophilic, usually odoriferous and liquid substances. EO are composed of terpenes, terpenoids, aromatic and aliphatic constituents. EO has various pharmacological activities of interest in preventive veterinary medicine such as antibacterials, antifungals, anticoccicids, insecticides and anthelmintics. In vitro and in vivo tests are used to validate the anthelmintic activity of EO on GIN. In vitro tests are low cost screening tests that allow the evaluation of the anthelmintic activity of a large amount of bioactive compounds on eggs, first (L1) and third stage larvae (L3), and adult nematodes. The antiparasitic effect of EO is related to its main compound or to the interaction of the compounds. These bioactive compounds penetrate the cuticle of the nematodes by transcuticular diffusion, altering the mechanisms of locomotion, besides causing cuticular lesions. Following in vitro evaluation, the acute and sub-chronic toxicity test should be performed to assess the toxicity of the bioactive compounds and to define the dose to be used in in vivo tests. In vivo tests are more reliable because the anthelmintic effectiveness of bioactive compounds is evaluated after the metabolization process. The metabolization process of the bioactive compounds can generate metabolites that exhibit or not anthelmintic effectiveness. The in vivo tests assessing the anthelmintic effectiveness of bioactive compounds in sheep and goats are the fecal egg count reduction test and the controlled test.  OE promoted reduction of egg elimination in faeces which may be related to cuticular and reproductive alterations in GIN, and reduction of parasite burden in in vivo tests. Due to the promising results obtained with OE in the in vivo tests, interest has been aroused in using nanotechnology as an alternative to increase the bioavailability of OE and consequently, potentializing its anthelmintic effect, reducing the dose and  toxicity of the biocompounds. In addition to nanotechnology, the isolation and chemical modification of compounds isolated from OE have been employed to obtain new molecules with anthelmintic action and understand the mechanism of action of EO on the small ruminant GIN.

Conclusion: The use of EO and their compound bioactive in the control of resistant populations of GIN is a promising alternative. The adoption of strategies in which natural products can replace synthetic anthelmintics, such as in dry periods and use synthetic anthelmintics in the rainy season when the population in refugia in the pasture is high, thus reducing the dissemination of GIN resistant populations. As perspective, the evaluation of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these natural products should be performed so that one defines treatment protocols that optimize the anthelmintic effect.


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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.81804

Copyright (c) 2018 Weibson Paz Pinheiro André, Wesley Lyeverton Correia Ribeiro, Lorena Mayana Beserra de Oliveira, Iara Tersia Freitas Macedo, Fernanda Cristina Macedo Rondon, Claudia Maria Leal Bevilaqua

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