First Evidence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Wild Boars


  • Matheus Nunes Weber Laboratório de Virologia, Faculdade de Veterinária (FaVet), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
  • Eloisa Helena Moreira Pino Laboratório de Virologia, Faculdade de Veterinária (FaVet), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
  • Carine Kunzler Souza Laboratório de Virologia, Faculdade de Veterinária (FaVet), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
  • Ana Cristina Sbaraini Mósena Laboratório de Virologia, Faculdade de Veterinária (FaVet), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
  • José Paulo Hiroji Sato Setor de Suínos, FAVET, UFRGS, Porto Alegre.
  • David Emílio Santos Neves de Barcellos Setor de Suínos, FAVET, UFRGS, Porto Alegre.
  • Cláudio Wageck Canal Laboratório de Virologia, Faculdade de Veterinária (FaVet), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.



BVDV, wild boar, pestivirus, RT-PCR.


Background: The farming of wild boars has growing due to the interest of the human consumption of this exotic meat. Such a development may pose an increased risk of disease transmission between boars and domestic animals. The wild boar population has increased in South America in the last years due the absence of predator causing economic losses due to direct damage to crops and risk of disease transmission. The genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae are composed by four recognized species by the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV): classical swine fever virus (CSFV), border disease virus (BDV), bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) and 2 (BVDV-2). Other putative species denoted as atypical pesitiviruses have been reported as ‘HoBi’-like virus, giraffe pestivirus, Bungowannah pestivirus, Pronghorn antelope virus, atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV), Norwegian rat pestivirus (NrPV) and Rhinolophus affinis bat pestivirus (RaPestV-1). CSFV is commonly detected in wild boars, but despite positive serology, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was never detected in this animal species. Thereby, the present communication describes the first detection of BVDV in the lungs of captive boars using RT-PCR and DNA sequencing.

Materials, Methods & Results: Forty lung samples from farmed wild boars were collected after slaughter in a commercial abattoir. The organs were crushed separately, centrifuged, and the supernatant was stored for further analysis. The total RNA was isolated using a phenol-based protocol and RT-PCR protocol that amplified 118 bp of 5’ untranslated region (5’UTR) was carried out. One out 40 samples resulted positive. The positive sample had partial fragments of 5’UTR and N terminal autoprotease (Npro) sequenced and analyzed. The strain LV Java/2012 presented 99% of identity in 5’UTR and 98% in Npro region with a BVDV-2 previously reported in bovines in Southern Brazil. In both 5’UTR and Npro phylogenetic analysis, the strain LV Java/2015 clustered with BVDV-2 strains and was most closely related to subtype 2b identified in bovines in Southern Brazil grouping in the same terminal node.

Discussion: Wild boars are commonly associated to pathogen transmission to domestic animals. This animal species is considered a reservoir of the pestivirus CSFV and important keys in CSFV control and eradication programs in Europe. Despite indirect presence of BVDV was reported in wild boars by serology tests, the direct detection of the viral agent was never reported. The present study showed the presence of BVDV-2 genomic segments obtained by RT-PCR followed by DNA sequencing in captive wild boars. The reported data suggests a possible importance of this animal species in the epidemiology of ruminant pestiviruses which could interfere in control and eradication programs of these important pathogens for cattle worldwide. The strain LV Java/2012 was closely related to BVDV-2b and presented highest identity with a strain detected in cattle from Southern Brazil. This data suggests that wild boars and bovines could be sharing this pathogen due the similarity of the strains and that both were reported in the same region. It can lead to need of inclusion of wild swines in BVDV control programs since boars can circulate between different regions and carry this pathogen to different cattle herds. The present study reported the first molecular evidence of BVDV in wild boars in the literature. The data generated herein suggests a possible importance of boars in the epidemiology of ruminant pestiviruses.


Download data is not yet available.


Avalos-Ramirez R., Orlich M., Thiel H.J. & Becher P. 2001. Evidence for the presence of two novel pestivirus species. Virology. 286: 456-465.

Deng Y., Sun C.Q., Cao S.J., Lin T., Yuan S.S., Zhang H.B., Zhai S.L., Huang L., Shan T.L., Zheng H., Wen X.T. & Tong G.Z. 2012. High prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 in Chinese swine herds. Veterinary Microbiology. 159: 490-493.

Hälli O., Ala-Kurikka E., Nokireki T., Skrzypczak T., Raunio-Saarnisto M., Peltoniemi O.A.T. & Heinonen M. 2012. Prevalence of and risk factors associated with viral and bacterial pathogens in farmed European wild boar. The Veterinary Journal. 194: 98-101.

Hause B.M., Collin E.A., Peddireddi L., Yuan F., Chen Z., Hesse R.A., Gayger P.C., Clement T., Fang Y. & Anderson G. 2015. Discovery of a novel putative atypical porcine pestivirus in pigs in the USA. Journal of General Virology. 96: 2994-2998.

Houe H. 2003. Economic impact of BVDV infection in dairies. Biologicals. 31: 137-143.

Kirkland P.D., Frost M.J., Finlaison D.S., King K.R., Ridpath J.F. & Gu X. 2007. Identification of a novel virus in pigs - Bungowannah virus: a possible new species of pestivirus. Virus Research. 129: 26-34.

Leifer I., Hoffmann B., Höper D., Rasmussen T.B., Blome S., Strebelow G., Höreth-Böntgen D., Staubach C. & Beer M. 2016. Molecular epidemiology of current classical swine fever virus isolates of wild boar in Germany. Journal of General Virology. 91: 2687-2697.

MacLachlan N.J. & Dubovi E.J. 2011. Flaviviridae. In: Fenner’s Veterinary Virology. London: Academic Press, pp.467-481.

Meng X.J., Lindsay D.S. & Sriranganathan N. 2009. Wild boars as sources for infectious diseases in livestock and humans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London – Biological Scienses. 364: 2697-2707.

Rossi S., Staubach C., Blome S., Guberti V., Thulke H.H., Vos A., Koenen F. & Le Potier M.F. 2015. Controlling of CSFV in European wild boar using oral vaccination: a review. Frontiers in Microbiology. 6: 1141.

Schirrmeier H., Strebelow G., Depner K., Hoffmann B. & Beer M. 2004. Genetic and antigenic characterization of an atypical pestivirus isolate, a putative member of a novel pestivirus species. Journal of General Virology. 85: 36473652.

Sedlak K., Bartova E. & Machova J. 2008. Antibodies to selected viral disease agents in wild boars from the Czech Republic. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 44: 777-780.

Silveira S., Weber M.N., Mósena A.C.S., Silva M.S., Streck A.F., Pescador C.A., Flores E.F., Weiblen R., Driemeier D., Ridpath J.F. & Canal C.W. 2015. Genetic diversity of Brazilian bovine pestiviruses detected between 1995 and 2014. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. [in press].

Simmonds P., Becher P., Collet M.S., Gould E.A., Heinz F.X., Meyers G., Monath T., Pletnev A., Rice C.M., Stiansny K., Thiel H.J., Weiner A. & Bukhet J. 2011. Flaviviridae. In: King A.M.Q., Adams M.J., Carstens E.B. & Lefkowitz E.J. (Eds). Virus Taxonomy: Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego: Academic Press, pp.1003-1020.

Tamura K., Stecher G., Peterson D., Filipski A. & Kumar S. 2013. MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 30: 2725-2729.

Tao J., Liao J., Wang Y., Zhang X., Wang J. & Zhu G. 2013. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in pigs. Veterinary Microbiology. 165: 185-189.

Thompson J.D., Higgins D.G. & Gibson T.J. 1994. CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research. 22: 4673-4680.

Vilcek S., Herring A.J., Herring J.A., Nettleton P.F., Lowings J.P. & Paton D.J. 1994. Pestiviruses isolated from pigs, cattle and sheep can be allocated into at least three genogroups using polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease analysis. Archives of Virology. 136: 309-323

Vilcek S. & Nettleton P.F. 2006. Pestiviruses in wild animals. Veterinary Microbiology. 116: 1-12.

Vilcek S., Ridpath J.F., Van Campen H., Cavender J.L. & Warg J. 2005. Characterization of a novel pestivirus originating from a pronghorn antelope. Virus Research. 108: 187-193.

Weber M.N., Silveira S., Machado G., Groff F.H.S., Mósena A.C.S., Budaszewski R.F., Dupont P.M., Corbellini L.G. & Canal C.W. 2014. High frequency of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in Southern Brazil. Virus Research. 191: 117-124.

Wu Z., Re X., Yang L., Hu Y., Yang J., He G., Zhang J., Dong J., Sun L., Du J., Liu L., Xue Y., Wang J., Yang F., Zhang S. & Jin Q. 2012. Virome analysis for identification of novel mammalian viruses in bat species from Chinese provinces. Journal of Virology. 86: 10999-11012.



How to Cite

Weber, M. N., Pino, E. H. M., Souza, C. K., Mósena, A. C. S., Sato, J. P. H., Barcellos, D. E. S. N. de, & Canal, C. W. (2016). First Evidence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Wild Boars. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 44(1), 5.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>