Retrospective Study of Pneumony by Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in Cats
Keywords:parasitic diseases, felines, lungworm, histopathology.
Background: Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is a lungworm of cats with worldwide distribution. The adult forms of this parasite live in terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and can cause an asymptomatic disease or predominantly respiratory clinical signs, which can be occasionally cause of death. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological and pathological findings of infection by A. abstrusus through a necropsy retrospective study.
Materials, Methods & Results: the necropsy records from the Department of Veterinary Pathology of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul were recovered and cats diagnosed with lungworm by Aelurostrongylus abstrusus were selected since January 1998 until December 2015. General data, such as age, sex, breed, clinical signs, and macroscopic lesions, were analyzed and compiled. The histological slides were reviewed by optical microscopy and detailed the microscopic aspects. In this study, were identified 22 cats with varying degrees of lungworm by A. abstrusus, and in 45.5% of the cases, this was the cause of death. Most part of the cats were mixed breed (19/22), and there were no sex predisposition. The age of the cats ranged from four months to 11 years old, and the most frequent age group was three to six years, with nine cases reported. In 37.5% of the cases were reported respiratory clinical signs, such as dyspnea and nasal discharge, and in 62.5%, clinical signs were not specific. The gross findings of the lungs ranged from reddish, or yellowish or white areas, and presence of multiples small, firm, and whitish nodules, measuring more than two centimeters in diameter, with multifocal distribution in the lung surface. Histologically, there was varied amount of parasites in different stages in the alveolar spaces, associated with the inflammatory infiltrate composed of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, neutrophils and occasional multinucleated giant cells, and hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the pulmonary smooth muscle and the wall of the arteries.
Discussion: Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is the principal parasite of lung of cats, with worldwide distribution. In this study, we observed that 40.9% of cases were reported as of 2012, and may be due to a larger propagation of definitive intermediate and paratenic hosts, climate changes and/or the increase of rearing cats, and the consequent increase of hospital routine. Agreeing with the others authors, there is no sex predilection, but differ in the age group, in to the present study, the most frequent age group was between “3 to 6 years” of age (52.9%). The gross findings observed were similar to those described by other authors. Histologically was observed varied amount of parasites, and the degree of inflammatory infiltrate were very similar, but with a slight difference in discrete infiltration (36.4%). Others researchers have identified predominantly severe inflammatory infiltrate (57.9%). Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of pulmonary smooth muscle and the wall of the arteries was moderate (50%), however, in previous studies were severe. The diagnosis of aelurostrongilosis through parasitological tests have proven the occurence this lung parasite in the study region, highlighting the importance of this study by adding epidemiological and pathological data on the disease.
Aiello E. & Mays A. 1998. The Merck’s Veterinary Manual. 8th edn. Philadelphia: Merck and Co., pp.1061-1121.
Bizz D.S. 2016. A importância da nutrição no processo de envelhecimento dos gatos. 28f. Porto Alegre, RS. Monografia apresentada à Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul como Requisito parcial para obtenção da Graduação em Medicina Veterinária.
Bowman D.D. 1999. Georgis’ parasitology for veterinarians. 7th edn. Philadelphia: Saunders, 413p.
Campedelli O. 1972. Ocorrência de broncopneumonia verminótica em gatos causada por Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Raillet, 1898) no Estado de São Paulo (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae). O Biológico. 38(11): 398-400.
Caswell J.L. & Williams K.J. 2007. Respiratory system. In: Maxie M.G. (Ed). Pathology of Domestic Animals. 5th edn. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier, pp.651-652.
Coman B.J., Jones E.H. & Driesen M.A. 1981. Helminth parasites and arthropods of feral cats. Australian Veterinary Journal. 57(7): 324-327.
Cordero del Campillo M., Castañón L. & Reguera A. 1994. Índice Catálogo de zooparasitos ibéricos. Secretariado de Publicaciones. 2nd edn. León: Universidad de León, pp. 203, 301 e 309.
Costa H.M.A., Costa J.O. & Freitas M.G. 1966. Parasitos de Felis domestica em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Arquivos da Escola de Medicina Veterinária da UFMG. 18: 65-69.
Dubey J.P., Beverley J.K.A. & Crane W.A.J. 1968. Lung changes and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infestation in English cats. Veterinary Record. 83: 91-94.
Dungworth D.L. 1993. The respiratory system. In: Jubb K.V.F., Kennedy P.C. & Palmer N. (Eds). The pathology of domestic animals. 4th edn. San Diego: Academic Press, pp.539-699.
Ehlers A., Mattos M.J.T. & Marques S.M.T. 2013. Prevalência de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda, Strongylida) em gatos de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Revista da FZVA. 19(1): 97-104.
Ellis A.E., Brow C.A. & Yabsley M.J. 2010. Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae in the colon of two cats. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 22(4): 652-655.
Fenerich F.L., Santos S.M. & Ribeiro L.O. 1975. Incidência de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898) (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) em gatos de rua da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. O Biológico. 41(2): 57-58.
Freeman A.S., Alger K. & Guerreiro J. 2003. In the absence of clinical signs. Veterinary Forum. 20: 20-23.
Goicoa A., Barreiro A., Díez P. & Morrondo P. 1998. Estudio de la bronconeumonia (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus) del gato. Consulta de Difusión Veterinaria. 6: 64-68.
Grabarevic Z., Curic S., Tustonja A., Artukovic B., Imec Z., Ramadan K. & Zivicnjak T. 1999. Incidence and regional distribution of the lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats in Croatia. Veterinarski Arhiv. 69(5): 279-287.
Grandi G., Calvi L.E., Venco L., Paratici C., Genchi C., Memmi D. & Kramer L.H. 2005. Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (cat lungworm) infection in five cats from Italy. Veterinary Parasitology. 134(1-2): 177-182.
Hamilton J.M. 1963. Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infestation of the cat. Veterinary Record. 75(16): 417-422.
Hamilton J.M. 1966. Experimental lungworm disease of the cat. Association of the condition with lesions of the pulmonar arteries. Journal of Comparative Pathology. 76(2): 147-157.
Hamilton J.M. & Mccaw A.W. 1968. The output of first stage larvae by cats infested with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Journal of Helminthology. 43(3/4): 295-298.
Hamilton J.M. 1969. On the migration, distribution, longevity and pathogenicity of larvae of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in the snail, Helix adspersa. Journal of Helminthology. 43(3/4): 319-325.
Hamilton J.M. 1970. The Influence of Infestation by Aelurostrongylus abstrusus on the Pulmonary Vasculature of the Cat. British Veterinary Journal. 126(4): 202-207.
Headley S.A. 2005. Pneumonia induzida por Aelurostrongylus abstrusus em gatos: achados patológicos e epidemiológicos de 38 casos (1987-1996). Semina: Ciências Agrárias. 26(3): 373-380.
Jobin W.R. 1999. Dams and disease: ecological design and health impacts of large dams, canals, and irrigation systems. London: E & FN Spon, 580p.
Koch J. & Willesen J.L. 2008. Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis: an update. The Veterinary Journal. 179(3): 348-359.
Lacorcia L., Gasser R.B., Anderson G.A. & Beveridge I. 2009. Comparison of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid examination and other diagnostic techniques with the Baermann technique for detection of naturally occurring Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection in cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 235(1): 4349.
Langenegger J. & Lanzieri P.D. 1963. Incidência e intensidade de infestação por helmintos em Felis catus domesticus do Rio de Janeiro. Veterinária. 16(18): 77-89.
Lautenslaugther J.P. 1976. Internal helminths of cats. Veterinary Clinics of North America. 6(3): 353-365.
Losonsky J.M., Thrall D.E. & Prestwood A.K. 1983. Radiographic evaluation of pulmonary abnormalities after Aelurostrongylus abstrusus inoculation in cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 44(3): 478-482.
Miro’ G., Montoya A. & Jiménez S. 2004. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and intestinal parasites instray, farm and housed cats in Spain. Veterinary Parasitology. 126(3): 249-255.
Mundim T.C.D., Oliveira Júnior S.D., Rodrigues D.C. & Cury M.C. 2004. Frequência de helmintos em gatos de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia. 56(4): 562-563.
Ogassawara S., Benassi S. & Larsson C.E. 1986. Prevalência de infecções helmínticas em gatos na cidade de São Paulo. Revista da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia. 23(2): 145-149.
Payo-Puente P., Botelho-Dinis M., Carvaja Urueña A.M., Payo-Puente M., Gonzalo-Orden J.M. & RojoVazquez F. 2008. Prevalence study of the lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in stray cats of Portugal. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 10(3): 242-246.
Ribeiro V.M. & Lima W.S. 2001. Larval production of cats infected and re-infected with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae). Revue de Médicine Vétérinarie. 152(11): 815-820.
Scott D.W. 1973. Current knowledge of aelurostrongylosis in the cat. Literature review and case reports. Cornell Veterinarian. 63(3): 483-500.
Schiaffi A.L., Bela M.G., Bela L.N. & Peruzzo L.E. 1995. Aelurostrongylus abstrusus: diagnóstico en la ciudad de Rosario. Veterinaria Argentina. 12(117): 480-483.
Traversa D. & Guglielmini C. 2008. Feline aelurostrongylosis and canine angiostrongylosis: A challenging diagnosis for two emerging verminous pneumonia infections. Veterinary Parasitology. 157(3-4): 163-174.
Traversa D., Di Cesare A., Milillo P., Lorio R. & Otranto D. 2008. Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in a feline colony from central Italy: clinical features, diagnostic procedures and molecular characterization. Parasitology Research. 103: 1191-1196.
Traversa D., Lia R.P., Lorio R., Boari A., Paradies P., Capelli G., Avolio S. & Otranto D. 2008. Diagnosis and risk factors of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda, Strongylida) infection in cats from Italy. Veterinary Parasitology. 153(1-2): 182-186.
Trein E.J. 1953. Lesões produzidas por Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898) no pulmão do gato doméstico. Tese para inscrição ao concurso para a cadeira de Anatomia Patológica e Técnica de Necropsia. Universidade do Rio Grande do Sul. Porto Alegre: Oficinas gráficas da livraria Selbach, 94p.
Tüzer E.T., Toparlak M.F., Gargili A., Keles V. & Esatgil M.A.U. 2002. Case of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection in a cat in Istanbul, Turkey and its treatment with moxidectin and levamisole. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science. 26(2): 411-414.
Vogt A.H., Rodan I., Brown M., Brown S., Buffington T.C.A., Forman L.M.J., Neilson J. & Sparkes A. 2010. AAFP–AAHA Feline Life Stage Guidelines. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association. 46: 70-85.
Xu X.J., Yang X.X., Dai Y.H., Yu G.Y., Chen L.Y. & Su Z.M. 1999. Impact of environmental change and schistosomiasis transmission in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River following the Three Gorges construction project. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 30(3): 549-555.
How to Cite
This journal provides open access to all of its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Such access is associated with increased readership and increased citation of an author's work. For more information on this approach, see the Public Knowledge Project and Directory of Open Access Journals.
We define open access journals as journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access. From the BOAI definition of "open access" we take the right of users to "read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles" as mandatory for a journal to be included in the directory.
La Red y Portal Iberoamericano de Revistas Científicas de Veterinaria de Libre Acceso reúne a las principales publicaciones científicas editadas en España, Portugal, Latino América y otros países del ámbito latino