Lateral and Medial Musculatures of Pelvic Limbs in Dogs - Normal Ultrasonographic Anatomy
Background: Pelvic limb claudication is a common problem in dogs. However, determining the location of the lesion can be challenging. Diagnostic imaging is essential for identifying and evaluating muscle injuries. Ultrasonographic evaluation is frequently performed to identify muscle injuries. Although some muscle changes have already been described as ultrasonography findings in veterinary studies, little is known about the standardization of these muscle structures, especially in hip muscles. The objective of this study was to describe the normal ultrasound anatomy of the lateral and medial muscles of the pelvic limb and establish an unprecedented protocol for the evaluation of these structures.
Materials, Methods & Results: A total of 4 lateral and 4 medial musculatures of the pelvic limb of dogs were evaluated using ultrasound. An initial ex vivo study (1st phase) was performed to delineate anatomical and ultrasonographic assessments. The 2nd experimental phase proceeded with the application of in vivo scanning. The same operator performed all anatomical and ultrasonographic assessments. The gluteus medius, vastus lateralis, tensor fasciae latae, sartorius, pectineus, gracilis, adductor, and rectus femoris muscles were evaluated in longitudinal and transverse planes. Ten paired hips from 5 cadavers consisting of 3 females (60%) and 2 males (40%) were evaluated during the ex vivo phase. The average age and weight of the dogs were 3.6 ± 0.87 years and 21.9 ± 5.2 kg, respectively. The in vivo study included 4 females (40%) and 6 males (60%), for a total of 10 healthy animals consisting of 20 hips; the mean weight was 30.11 ± 7.45 kg and the average age was 4.5 ± 2.75 years. All muscles maintained the same ultrasound pattern when compared with each other and between different groups in the in vivo study. The longitudinal section presented a hypoechoic structure permeated by thin hyperechoic longitudinal striations. The hypoechoic aspect was maintained, with striae identified as hyperechogenic points in the cross-sectional view.
Discussion: B-mode ultrasonographic evaluation with a high-frequency transducer has facilitated the identification of the lateral and medial muscles of the pelvic limbs of medium and large dogs ex vivo and in vivo. This approach is an effective and safe way to access these muscles, and aids in the establishment of an unprecedented protocol for ultrasound evaluation of this region. Understanding the normal ultrasonographic anatomy is essential to identify muscle injuries such as contractures, tumors, ruptures, and stretch, which can lead to loss of muscle echogenicity and echotexture. Furthermore, ultrasound standardization reduces inter-observer error, facilitates technique reproducibility, assists in a more assertive assessment, and directs the patient's most appropriate therapy. In addition, anatomical dissection with the aid of acoustic gel injection into the evaluated musculature is essential to guide the examination because it allows the confirmation of the structures. In this study, the ultrasound scans of 6 fundamental muscles (gluteus medius, tensor fasciae latae, gracilis, adductor, pectineus, and rectus femoris) for hip mobility and 2 knee muscles (sartorius and vastus lateralis) were standardized. Ex vivo evaluations facilitated the application of in vivo techniques, and no difficulties were found during these evaluations.
Keywords: canine, fundamental muscles, imaging, diagnosis, ultrasound, neoplasm.
Berger J., Bunout D., Barrera G., Maza M.P., Henriquez S., Leiva L. & Hirsch S. 2015. Rectus femoris (RF) ultrasound for the assessment of muscle mass in older people. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 61(1): 33-38.
Bright J.M., Fields K.B. & Draper R. 2017. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Calf Injuries. Journal Sports Health. 9(4): 352-355.
Draghi F., Zacchino M., Canepari M., Nucci P. & Alessandrino F. 2013. Muscle injuries: ultrasound evaluation in the acute phase. Journal of Ultrasound. 16(4): 209-214.
Fabbi M., Di Palma S., Manfredi S., Gnudi G., Miduri F., Daga E., Melis G.C., Bianchi E., Voccia S. & Volta A. 2017. Imaging diagnosis-ultrasonographic appearance of skeletal muscle metastases in a dog with hemangiosarcoma. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound. 58(6): E64-E67.
Frank I., Mann K. & Duerr F. 2019. Fluorine-18-fluoro-2- deoxy-d-glucose PET-CT aids in detection of soft‐tissue injuries for dogs with thoracic or pelvic limb lameness. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound. 60(5): 575-585.
González-Rellán S., Fdz-de-Trocóniz P. & Barreiro A. 2021. Ultrasonographic anatomy of the dorsal region of the carpus of the dog. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound. 62(5): 591-601.
Hotfiel T., Heiss R., Swoboda B., Kellermann M., Gelseet K., Grim C., Strobel D. & Wildner D. 2018. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound as a New Investigative Tool in Diagnostic Imaging of Muscle Injuries - A Pilot Study Evaluating Conventional Ultrasound, CEUS, and Findings in MRI. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 28(4): 332-338.
Hughes L.E. 2007. Hip and Sacroiliac Disease: Selected Disorders and Their Management with Physical Therapy. Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice. 22(4): 183-194.
Kaiser S.M., Harms O., Konar M., Staudacher A., Langer A., Thiel C., Kramer M., Schaub S. & Pückler K.H.V. 2016. Clinical, radiographic, and magnetic resonance imaging findings of gastrocnemius musculotendinopathy in various dog breeds. Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology. 29(6): 515-521.
Moretti G., Birettoni F., Caivano D., Nannarone S., Crovace A., Porciello F. & Bufalari A. 2021. Mini‐invasive approach for removal of iliopsoas migrating grass awns with an atraumatic wound retractor. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 62(2): 150-155.
Mostafa A.A., Griffon D.J., Thomas M.W. & Constable P.D. 2010. Morphometric Characteristics of the Pelvic Limb Musculature of Labrador Retrievers with and without Cranial Cruciate Ligament Deficiency. Veterinary Surgery. 39(3): 380-389.
Rossignoli P.P., Feliciano M.A.R., Minto B.W., Maronezi M.C., Uscategui R.A., Ido C.K., Rolemberg D.S., Faria, L.G., Cruz I.C.K. & Aires L.P.N. 2020. B mode ultrasonography and elastography in the evaluation of the pectineus muscle in dogs with hip dysplasia. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science. 44(5): 1142-1149.
Song M.Y., Ruts E., Kim J., Janumala I., Heymsfield S. & Gallagher D. 2004. Sarcopenia and increased adipose tissue infiltration of muscle in elderly African American women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 79(5): 874-880.
Tinga S., Kim S.E., Banks S.A., Jones S.C., Park B.H., Pozzi A. & Lewis DD. 2018. Femorotibial kinematics in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency: a three-dimensional in-vivo fluoroscopic analysis during walking. BMC Veterinary Research. 14(1): 85.
Willemsen K., Möring M.M., Harlianto N.I., Tryfonidou M.A., Wal B.C.H. Weinans H., Meji B.P. Sakkers R.J.B. 2021. Comparing Hip Dysplasia in Dogs and Humans: A Review. Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 15(8): 1-10.
Yoshikawa K., Tsubakishita S., Sano T., Ino T., Miyasaka T. & Kitazawa T. 2021. Functional assessment of the gluteus medius, cranial part of the biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis in Beagle dogs based on a novel gait phase classification. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 83(1): 116-124.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Rafael Kretzer Carneiro, Igor Cezar Kniphoff da Cruz, Bruna Lima, José Aloizio Gançalves Neto, Beatriz Gasser, Ricardo Andres Ramirez Uscategui, Eduarda Mazzardo Bortoluzzi, Luiz Paulo Nogueira Aires, Bruno Watanabe Minto, Marcus Antônio Rossi Feliciano
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This journal provides open access to all of its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Such access is associated with increased readership and increased citation of an author's work. For more information on this approach, see the Public Knowledge Project and Directory of Open Access Journals.
We define open access journals as journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access. From the BOAI definition of "open access" we take the right of users to "read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles" as mandatory for a journal to be included in the directory.
La Red y Portal Iberoamericano de Revistas Científicas de Veterinaria de Libre Acceso reúne a las principales publicaciones científicas editadas en España, Portugal, Latino América y otros países del ámbito latino