Progesterone Levels and Reproductive Parameters in the Periovulatory Period of Nellore Cows under FTAI protocol

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.120702

Abstract

Background: Fixed Time Artificial Insemination (FTAI) has achieved a significant evolution in the last 18 years, however, despite the progress achieved by modern FTAI programs, the conception rates obtained are still low. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the interrelation between progesterone levels in the periovulatory period and reproductive parameters of Nellore cows submitted to an FTAI protocol.

Materials, Methods & Results: On a random day, called day 0 (D0), 57 cows received a P4 device associated with the intramuscular (IM) application of 2.0 mg of estradiol benzoate. On D9, the P4 devices were removed and then were administered 500 μg of cloprostenol sodium IM; 0.6 mg of estradiol cypionate IM and 300 IUI of Equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin IM. Blood samples were collected for the determination of serum P4 concentrations on D9 and D11 of the protocol. The evaluations of follicular diameter (DFOL), follicular wall area (AFOL) and the vascularization area of the follicle wall (VFOL) were carried out on D11 using B-mode ultrasonography examination and colour Doppler, and then the artificial inseminations were performed. The evaluation of the corpus luteum diameter (CLD), of the total corpus luteum area (CLA), of the area of corpus luteum vascularization (CLV) and blood sampling for determination of post-ovulatory P4 levels (Post-P4) were performed on D24. For the analysis of the P4 concentration the chemiluminescence method was used, with a sensitivity of 0.1 ng/mL. According to the P4 concentrations on D11, cows were divided into 2 groups, LOW LEVELS OF P4 and HIGH LEVELS OF P4. The diagnosis of pregnancy was performed using transrectal ultrasonography on D45, at this point the cows were divided into 2 groups, PREGNANT and NON-PREGNANT. The correlation between DFOL and P4 dosage on D11 was moderate, negative and significant and between the AFOL and the serum P4 levels on D9, was moderate, negative and significant. As for the other correlations between follicular and luteal parameters and serum P4 levels, these were low to moderate, negative and not significant. Cows in the LOW LEVELS OF P4 group had significantly larger diameter and follicular areas than the cows in the HIGH LEVELS OF P4 group, the other follicular and luteal parameters showed no statistical difference. Of the total 57 cows that were inseminated, 30 cows became pregnant. Cows in the PREGNANT group had serum P4 levels on D9 equivalent to that obtained by the NON-PREGNANT group. However, at D11 the cows that became pregnant presented significantly lower serum P4 levels than cows that did not become pregnant.

Discussion: The results of the interrelation between follicular parameters and P4 levels obtained in the present study, pointed out that the lower the levels of P4, the higher the follicular parameters, corroborating with other authors. Thus, larger preovulatory follicles provided high ovulation rates. Periovulatory serum P4 levels did not significantly affect the morphofunctional parameters of the CL. Such findings may be justified by high periovulatory P4 levels resulting from less efficient luteolysis, exert a negative effect on the results of FTAI protocols, because progesterone inhibits the release of LH pulses. It is concluded that lower periovulatory P4 levels established a favourable condition for follicular development and fertility, however, morphofunctional parameters of the corpus luteum were not affected.

Keywords: follicular development, fertility, conception rate, ovarian hemodynamics, synchronization.

Título: Níveis de progesterona e os parâmetros reprodutivos no período periovulatório de vacas Nelore submetidas ao protocolo de IATF.

Descritores: crescimento folicular, fertilidade, índice de concepção, hemodinâmica ovariana, sincronização.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Marcus Vinicius Galvão Loiola, Universidade Federal da Bahia

Escola de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

Rodrigo Freitas Bittencourt, Universidade Federal da Bahia

Escola de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

Antônio de Lisboa Ribeiro Filho, Universidade Federal da Bahia

Escola de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

References

Abdelnaby E.A., El-Maaty A.M.A., Ragab R.S. & Seida A.A. 2018. Dynamics of uterine and ovarian arteries flow velocity waveforms and their relation to follicular and luteal growth and blood flow vascularization during the estrous cycle in Friesian cows. Theriogenology. 121: 112-121.

Abreu F.M., Silva M.C., Cruppe L.H., Mussard M.L., Bridges G.A., Harstine B.R. & Day M.L. 2018. Role of progesterone concentrations during early follicular development in beef cattle: I. Characteristics of LH secretion and oocyte quality. Animal Reproduction Science. 196: 59-68.

Abreu F.M., Geary T.W., Silva M.C., Cruppe L.H., Mussard M.L., Madsen C.A. & Day M.L. 2018. Role of progesterone concentrations during early follicular development in beef cattle: II. Ovulatory follicle growth and pregnancy rates. Animal Reproduction Science. 196: 69-76.

Baruselli P.S. 2021. Mercado da IATF cresce 30% em 2020 e supera 21 milhões de procedimentos. Boletim Eletrônico do Departamento de Reprodução Animal/FMVZ/USP. 5ª ed. [Fonte <http://vra.fmvz.usp.br/boletim-eletronico-vra/>].

Batista E.O.S., Sala R.V., Ortolan M.D.D.V., Jesus E.F., Del Valle T.A., Rennó F. P. & Baruselli P.S. 2019. Hepatic mRNA expression of enzymes associated with progesterone metabolism and its impact on ovarian and endocrine responses in Nelore (Bos indicus) and Holstein (Bos taurus) heifers with differing feed intakes. Theriogenology. 143: 113-122.

Bó G.A., Huguenine E., Mata J.J.L., Núñez-Olivera R., Baruselli P.S. & Menchaca A. 2018. Programs for fixed-time artificial insemination in South American beef cattle. Animal Reproduction. 15(Suppl 1): 952-962.

Bollwein H., Lüttgenau J. & Herzog K. 2012. Bovine luteal blood flow: Basic mechanism and clinical relevance. Reproduction, Fertility and Development. 25: 71-79.

Carter F., Forde N., Duffy P., Wade M., Fair T., Crowe M.A., Evans A.C.O., Kenny D.A., Roche J.F. & Lonergan P. 2008. Effect of increasing progesterone concentration from Day 3 of pregnancy on subsequent embryo survival and development in beef heifers. Reproduction, Fertility and Development. 20: 368-375.

Carvalho E.R., Martins T., Lamb G.C. & Vasconcelos J.L.M. 2016. Ovulation time in suckled beef cows is anticipated by use of low doses of progesterone and temporary calf removal on fixed timed AI protocol. Theriogenology. 86(9): 2238-2243.

Carvalho J.D., Carvalho N.D., Reis E.L., Nichi M., Souza A.D. & Baruselli P.S. 2008. Effect of early luteolysis in progesterone-based timed AI protocols in Bos indicus, Bos indicus × Bos taurus, and Bos taurus heifers. Theriogenology. 69(2): 167-175.

Carvalho P.D., Fuenzalida M.J., Ricci A., Souza A.H., Barletta R.V., Wiltbank M.C. & Fricke P.M. 2015. Modifications to Ovsynch improve fertility during resynchronization: Evaluation of presynchronization with gonadotropin-releasing hormone 6 d before initiation of Ovsynch and addition of a second prostaglandin F2α treatment. Journal of Dairy Science. 98(12): 8741-8752.

Caunce S.L., Dadarwal D., Adams G.P., Brar P. & Singh J. 2019. An objective volumetric method for assessment of ovarian follicular and luteal vascular flow using colour Doppler ultrasonography. Theriogenology. 138: 66-76.

Dadarwal D., Mapltoft R.J., Adams G.P., Pfeifer L.F.M., Creelman C. & Singh J. 2013. Effect of progesterone concentration and duration of proestrus on fertility in beef catle after fixed-time artificial insemination. Theriogenology. 79: 859-866.

Dias C.C., Wechsler F.S., Day M.L. & Vasconcelos J.L.M. 2009. Progesterone concentrations, exogenous equine chorionic gonadotropin, and timing of prostaglandin F2α treatment affect fertility in postpuberal Nelore heifers. Theriogenology, 72(3): 378-385.

Ferraz P.A. 2017. Efeito da eCG sobre a dinâmica ovariana de vacas mestiças com diferentes concentrações circulantes de progesterona durante a sincronização da ovulação. 97f. Salvador, BA. Tese (Doutorado em Ciência Animal nos Trópicos) - Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal nos Trópicos, Universidade Federal da Bahia.

Ferraz P.A., Silva M.A., Carôso B.S., Araujo E.A., Bittencourt T.C., Chalhoub M. & Ribeiro Filho A.L. 2019. Effect of eCG on the follicular dynamics and vascularization of crossbred cows with different circulating progesterone concentrations during synchronization of ovulation in an FTAI protocol. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 39(5): 324-331.

Giordano J.O., Wiltbank M.C., Fricke P.M., Bas S., Pawlisch R., Guenther J.N. & Nascimento A.B. 2013. Effect of increasing GnRH and PGF2α dose during Double-Ovsynch on ovulatory response, luteal regression, and fertility of lactating dairy cows. Theriogenology. 80(7): 773-783.

Hassan M., Arshad U., Bilal M., Sattar A., Avais M., Bollwein H. & Ahmad N. 2018. Luteal blood flew measured by Doppler ultrasonography during the first three weeks after artificial insemination in pregnant and non-pregnant Bos indicus dairy cows. Journal of Reproduction and Development. 65(1): 29-36.

Martins J.P., Policelli R.K., Nauder L.M., Raphael W. & Pursley J.R. 2011. Effects of cloprostenol sodium at final prostaglandin F-2 alpha of Ovsynch on complete luteolysis and pregnancy per artificial insemination lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 94: 2815-2824.

Martins J.P.N., Policelli R.K. & Pursley J.R. 2011. Luteolytic effects of cloprostenol sodium in lactating dairy cows treated with G6G/Ovsynch. Journal of Dairy Science. 94: 2806-2814.

Martins T., Peres R.F.G., Rodrigues A.D.P., Pohler K.G., Pereira M.H.C., Day M.L. & Vasconcelos J.L.M. 2014. Effect of progesterone concentrations, follicle diameter, timing of artificial insemination, and ovulatory stimulus on pregnancy rate to synchronized artificial insemination in postpubertal Nellore heifers. Theriogenology. 81: 446-453.

Pegorer M.F., Ereno R.L., Satrapa R.A., Pinheiro V.G., Trinca L.A. & Barros C.M. 2011. Neither plasma progesterone concentrations nor exogenous eCG affects rates of ovulation or pregnancy in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols for puberal Nelore heifeirs. Theriogenology. 75: 17-23.

Pfeifer L.F.M., Mapletoft R.J., Kastelic J.P., Small J.A., Adams G.P., Dionello N.J. & Singh J. 2009. Effects of low versus physiologic plasma progesterone concentrations on ovarian follicular development and fertility in beef catle. Theriogenology. 72: 237-1250.

Rodrigues A.D., Cooke R.F., Cipriano R.S., Silva L.G.T., Cerri R.L.A., Cruppe L.H., Meneghetti M., Pohler K.G. & Vasconcelos J.L.M. 2018. Impacts of estrus expression and intensity during a timed-AI protocol on variables associated with fertility and pregnancy success in Bos indicus-influenced beef cows. Journal Animal Science. 96(1): 236-249.

Rodrigues A.S., Silva M.A., Brandão T.O., Nascimento A.B., Bittencourt R.F., Chalhoub M. & Ribeiro Filho A.D.L. 2018. Eficácia da associação dupla dose PGF2 alfa-eCG no proestro de vacas leiteiras mestiças submetidas à IATF. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 38(8): 1518-1527.

Santos J.E.P., Bisinotto R.S. & Ribeiro E.S. 2016. Mechanisms underlying reduced fertility in anovular dairy cows. Theriogenology. 86(1): 254-262.

Simões L.M.S., Orlandi R.E., Massoneto J.P.M., Scandiuzzi Jr. L.A., Freitas B.G., Bastos M.R. & Sales J.N.S. 2018. Exposure to progesterone previous to the protocol of ovulation synchronization increases the follicular diameter and the fertility of suckled Bos indicus cows. Theriogenology. 116: 28-33.

Stevenson J.S. & Lamb G.C. 2016. Contrasting effects of progesterone on fertility of dairy and beef cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 99(7): 5951-5964.

Vasconcelos J.L.M., Pereira M.H.C., Wiltbank M.C., Guida T.G., Lopes Jr. F.R., Sanches Jr. C.P., Barbosa L.F.S.P., Costa Jr. W.M. & Munhoz A.K. 2018. Evolution of fixed-time AI in dairy cattle in Brazil. Animal Reproduction. 15: 940-951.

Vasconcelos J.L.M., Sartori R., Oliveira H.N., Guenther J.G. & Wiltbank M.C. 2001. Reduction in size of the ovulatory follicle reduces subsequent luteal size and pregnancy rate. Theriogenology. 56(2): 307-314.

Wiley C., Jahnke M., Redifer C., Gunn P.J. & Dohlman T. 2019. Effects of endogenous progesterone during ovarian follicle superstimulation on embryo quality and quantity in beef cows. Theriogenology. 129: 54-60.

Wiltbank M.C., Baez G.M., Cochrane F., Barletta R.V., Trayford C.R. & Joseph R.T. 2015. Effect of a second treatment with prostaglandin F2α during the Ovsynch protocol on luteolysis and pregnancy in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 98(12): 8644-8654.

Wiltbank M.C., Baez G.M., Vasconcelos J.L.M., Pereira M., Souza A.H. & Sartori R. 2014. The physiology and impact on fertility of the period of proestrus in lactating dairy cows. Animal Reproduction. 11: 225-36.

Wiltbank M.C. & Pursley J.R. 2014. The cow as an induced ovulator: Timed AI after synchronization of ovulation. Theriogenology. 81: 170-185.

Wiltbank M.C., Souza A.H., Giordano J.O., Nascimento J.M., Pereira M.H.C., Fricke P.M., Surjus R.S., Zinsly F.C.S., Carvalho P.D., Bender R.W. & Sartori R. 2012. Positive and negative effects of progesterone during timed AI protocols in lactating dairy cattle. Animal Reproduction. 9(3): 231-241.

Wright I.A., Russel A.J.F. & Hunter E.A. 1986. The use of body condition scoring to ration beef cows in late pregnancy. Animal Science. 43(3): 391-396.

Additional Files

Published

2022-06-21

How to Cite

Sousa, A. B., Menezes, A. A., Batista, L. A. S., Loiola, M. V. G., Bittencourt, R. F., Filho, A. de L. R., & Rodrigues, A. S. (2022). Progesterone Levels and Reproductive Parameters in the Periovulatory Period of Nellore Cows under FTAI protocol. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 50. https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.120702

Issue

Section

Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)