Salmonellosis in Calves by Serovar Dublin in Paraná State, Brazil - Clinicopathological Aspects
Background: Calf diarrhea remains one of the main diseases affecting the cattle industry. Persistence of this significant problem is associated with the complexity of factors that may be involved (infectious, environmental). An accurate diagnosis is essential for confirming the cause and helping clinicians and cattle producers to apply appropriate strategies in a timely manner. This report describes the histological changes according to the degree of salmonellosis severity, which is a contagious infectious disease caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, a Gram-negative bacterium, in two beef calves in northern Paraná State, southern Brazil.
Cases: Two 90-day-old crossbred Angus and Nellore calves from a beef farm in northern Paraná State were referred to a Veterinary Hospital. Animal 1- developed acute clinical signs (enteritis, ataxia, and muscle rigidity) and died the day after the signs began. Gross findings included heavy and non-collapsed lungs, pulmonary oedema, hepatomegaly, enteritis, and severe diffuse typhlitis. Microscopic analysis revealed severe diffuse necrotic enteritis, typhlitis, severe diffuse interstitial pneumonia, moderate centrilobular hepatic necrosis, mild multifocal nephritis, and severe spleen and lymph node necrosis. Paratyphoid nodules were evidenced on the liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Animal 2- presented apathy, green fibrinous diarrhea, and died three days after the onset of clinical signs. The macroscopic examination showed moderate diffuse enteritis and hepatosplenomegaly. At the microscopic examination, many paratyphoid nodules were observed on the liver, spleen, kidneys, and Peyer's patches, which were associated with intralesional and intravascular bacilli. Additional findings included severe diffuse fibrinous necrotic enteritis with intralesional bacilli, diffuse interstitial pneumonia, multifocal splenic necrosis, lymphoid depletion, and moderate multifocal to coalescent lymphocytic nephritis. Histological Gram staining was performed on selected samples, revealing intralesional Gram-negative bacilli in the liver and intestine. Thus, liver and intestine fragments were used for the microbiological examination. Microbiological culture, isolation and biochemical tests identified the genus Salmonella spp. Then, the colonies were subjected to serological tests for serovar identification, according to ISO/TR 6579-3, which determined the serovar Dublin. After identifying the disease etiological agent, the outbreak was controlled by appropriate antibiotic therapy combined with the correction of sanitary measures.
Discussion: Enteritis is a frequent disease in calves, posing a diagnostic challenge in identifying the etiological agent. In the present case, the histological, microbiological, and serological results confirmed a disseminated Salmonella spp. infection. The microscopic findings, such as interstitial pneumonia, fibrinous necrotic enteritis markedly in ileum and paratyphoid nodules in various organs, are the most common aspects of the disease. However, fibrinous cholecystitis, which is considered pathognomonic for salmonellosis, was not observed in this study. Therefore, the absence of such a lesion should not exclude the disease in sick animals. A microscopic injury score was used to determine lesion severity by assigning values from 1 to 4, wherein: 1 = no apparent lesions, 2 = mild lesions, 3 = moderate lesions, and 4 = severe lesions. Both calves were scored as 4. Multiple predisposing factors for the condition were identified in this farm such as different age animals in the same paddock and no specific paddock for sick animals, given that the infectious agent remains in feces, saliva, and nasal discharge. The serovar Dublin induces several clinical signs such as septicemic, respiratory, and enteric manifestations, making a clinical diagnosis a challenge.
Keywords: dysbiosis, calf diarrhea, infection, paratyphoid nodules, septicemia.
Descritores: disbiose, diarreia neonatal, infecção, nódulos paratifoides, septicemia.
Título: Salmonelose em bezerros pelo sorovar Dublin no estado do Paraná, Brasil - aspectos clínico-patológicos
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