Natural Poisoning by Xanthium cavanillesii in Cattle in the Southern Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul

Authors

  • Antônio Amaral Barbosa Departamento de Clínicas Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária (FV), Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Campus Universitário, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.
  • Ederson dos Santos Departamento de Clínicas Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária (FV), Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Campus Universitário, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.
  • Rosana Klaus Departamento de Clínicas Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária (FV), Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Campus Universitário, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.
  • Viviane Rohrig Rabassa Departamento de Clínicas Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária (FV), Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Campus Universitário, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.
  • Mauro Pereira Soares Departamento de Clínicas Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária (FV), Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Campus Universitário, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.
  • Marcio Nunes Correa Departamento de Clínicas Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária (FV), Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Campus Universitário, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.101382

Abstract

Background: Poisoning by Xanthium spp. plants are important causes of deaths of cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. This plant has as toxic principle a triterpenoide glycoside that acts inhibiting the transport of adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate across the mitochondrial membrane, responsible for causing acute liver failure. Clinical signs occur within hours of ingesting the plant. However, the knowledge of the metabolic disorders that these animals suffer are poorly described, so the objective of the reports is to describe an outbreak of spontaneous intoxication by Xanthium cavanillesii and demonstrate the clinical, metabolic and anatomopathological changes of a poisoned bovine.

Case: An 8-month-old male bovine, Aberdeen Angus breed, was sent to the Veterinary Hospital of Clinics of Federal University of Pelotas (HCV-UFPel). The animal came from a property located in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul, belonged to a herd of 506 animals, of which 258 were nulliparous cows and 248 calves, in total 92 died, being 20 cows and 62 calves in a period of 3 days. The clinical course ranged from 3 to 72 h and was characterized by neurological signs (pedaling movements, opisthotonus and motor incoordination), sternal decubitus, muscle tremors, apathy, anorexia, hypersalivation, dehydration, tenesmus and death. In the field where the animals were, there was the present of Xanthium cavanillesii in the dicotyledonouns sprouting phase, with signs of ingestion. During the clinical examination of the animal sent to the hospital, sternal decubitus, muscle tremor, motor incoordination, apathy, anorexia, hypersalivation and opisthotone were observed, heart rate of 60 beats per minute, respiratory rate of 15 movements per minute, 2 ruminal movements incomplete at every 2 minutes, moderate dehydration and temperature of 37.9º C. For laboratory exams, blood samples were collected in vacuum tubes with 10% EDTA, to perform blood count with hemoparasite research, and without anticoagulant, to perform serum biochemistry tests, liver and kidney function. Highlighting the increase in liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltranferase and alkaline phosphatase), hypoglycemia, elevation of total bilirubin and direct bilirubin, hypoalbuminemia, increase in triglycerides with leukocytosis by neutrophilia with regenerative left shift. Due to advanced clinical condition of the animal, was realized euthanasia for post-mortem examination. At necropsy, the main diagnostic macroscopic lesions were an accentuation of the lobular pattern of the organ parenchyma with the appearance of “nutmeg” and centrilobular coagulative necrosis accompanied by congestion and hemorrhages, characterizing a picture of acute liver failure. In addition, X. cavanillesii fruits were detected in the rumen content.

Discussion: The diagnosis was based on epidemiological, clinical-anatomopathological, laboratory data and experimental reproduction of the disease in cattle and sheep. Regarding the epidemiological findings, the presence of the plant with signs of ingestion stands out in addition to the absence of other plants capable of producing similar cases on the farm. The metabolic changes described, if analyzed in isolation, do not confirm the diagnosis, but combined with other parameters, it contributes to the assessment and prognosis of the patient, becoming of great importance in elucidating and conducting the clinical condition.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Antônio Amaral Barbosa, Departamento de Clínicas Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária (FV), Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Campus Universitário, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

Departamento de Clínicas Veterinárias

Ederson dos Santos, Departamento de Clínicas Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária (FV), Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Campus Universitário, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

Departamento de Clínicas Veterinárias

Viviane Rohrig Rabassa, Departamento de Clínicas Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária (FV), Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Campus Universitário, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

Departamento de Clínicas Veterinárias

Mauro Pereira Soares, Departamento de Clínicas Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária (FV), Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Campus Universitário, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico

Marcio Nunes Correa, Departamento de Clínicas Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária (FV), Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Campus Universitário, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

Departamento de Clínicas Veterinária

References

Amaral L., Rabassa V., Marchiori M., Meirelles M., Amado M. & Nogueira C. 2011. Utilização de lidocaína 2% por via intratecal associado à anestesia prévia com tiopental sódico como método de eutanásia em equinos. ARS Veterinaria. 7: 11-16.

Bertoni G. & Trevisi E. 2013. Use of the liver activity index and other metabolic variables in the assessment of metabolic health in dairy herds. Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice. 29(2): 413-431.

Colodel E.M., Driemeier D. & Pilati C. 2000. Intoxicação experimental pelos frutos de Xanthium cavanillesii (Asteraceae) em bovinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 20(1): 31-38.

Costa T.N. 2011. Alterações hematológicas e bioquímicas séricas nas intoxicações de cães, gatos e ruminantes por plantas. 30f. Goiânia, GO. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciência Animal) - Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência Animal, Universidade Federal de Goiás.

Driemeier D., Irigoyen L.F., Loretti A.P., Colodel E.M. & Barros C.S. 1999. Intoxicação espontânea pelos frutos de Xanthium cavanillesii (Asteraceae) em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 19(1): 12-18.

French T.W., Blue J.T. & Stokol T. 1999. Clinical Pathology Modules. Cornell University. Available in: <http://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/clinpath/modules/index.htm>. [Accessed online in February 2020].

González F.H.D. & Silva S.C. 2006. Perfil bioquímico sanguíneo. In: Introdução à Bioquímica Clínica Veterinária. 2.ed. Porto Alegre: Editora da UFRGS, pp.313-358.

González F.H.D., Valle S.F. & Silva S.C. 2014. Patologia Clínica Veterinária: uma abordagem sobre casos clínicos. Porto Alegre: Editora da UFRGS, 77p.

Gordon H.M. & Whitlock H.V. 1939. A new technique for counting nematode eggs in sheep faeces. Journal of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. 12(1): 50-52.

Grünberg W. 2014. Treatment of phosphorus balance disorders. Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice. 30(2): 383-408.

Jain N.C. 1993. Essentials of Veterinary Hematology. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 417p.

Jones M.L. & Allison R.W. 2007. Evaluation of the ruminant complete blood cell count. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice. 23(3): 377-402.

Kaneko J.J., Harvey J.H. & Bruss M.L. 2008. Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 6th edn. San Diego: Academic Press, 928p.

Kelly W.R. 1993. The liver and biliary system. In: Jubb K.V.F., Kennedy P.C. & Palmer N. (Eds). Pathology of Domestic Animals. v.2. 4th edn. San Diego: Academic Press Ltd., pp.319-406.

Loretti A.P., Bezerra P.S., Ilha M.R.S., Barros S.S. & Barros C.S. 1999. Intoxicação experimental pelos frutos de Xanthium cavanillesii (Asteraceae) em ovinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 19(2): 71-78.

MacLachlan N.J. & Cullen J.M. 1995. Liver, biliary system and exocrine pancreas. In: Thomson's Special Veterinary Pathology. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier, pp.81-115.

Martin T., Johnson B.J., Sangiah S. & Burrows G.E. 1992. Experimental cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) intoxication in calves. In: Poisonous plants. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium (Ames, U.S.A.). pp.489-494.

Martin T., Stair E.L. & Dawson L. 1986. Cocklebur poisoning in cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 189(5): 562-563.

Meyer D.J., Coles E.H. & Rich L.J. 1995. Medicina de Laboratório Veterinária. Interpretação e Diagnóstico. São Paulo: Editora Roca, 308p.

Nelson R.W. & Couto C.G. 2001. Medicina Interna de Pequenos Animais. 2.ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, 1084p.

Radostits O.M., Gay C.C., Blood D.C. & Hinchcliff K.W. 2007. Clínica veterinária: um tratado de doenças dos bovinos, ovinos, suínos, caprinos e equinos. 9.ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, 1737p.

Riet-Correa F. & Méndez M.C. 2007. Intoxicações por plantas e micotoxinas. In: Riet-Correa F., Schild A.L., Lemos R.A.A. & Borges J.R. (Eds). Doenças de Ruminantes e Equídeos. v.2. 3.ed. Santa Maria: Pallotti, pp.99-221.

Santos R.C. 1997. Intoxicação experimental por Xanthium strumarium em bovinos e ovinos. 32f. Pelotas, RS. Dissertação (Mestrado) - Programa de Pós-Graduação em Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Pelotas.

Tokarnia C.H. 2012. Plantas Tóxicas do Brasil para Animais de Produção. 2.ed. Rio de Janeiro: Helianthus, 566p.

Thrall M.A., Hrall M.J., Baker H.C., Campbell M.W., Denicola D., Fettman M.J. & Baker D. 2007. Hematologia e bioquímica clínica veterinária. 2.ed. São Paulo: Editora Roca, pp.335-354.

Witte S.T., Osweiler G.D., Stahr H.M. & Mobley G. 1990. Cocklebur toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of mature Xanthium strumarium. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2(4): 263-267.

Wouters A.T., Wouters F., Boabaid F.M., Watanabe T.T., Fredo G., Varaschin M. S. & Driemeier D. 2017. Brain lesions associated with acute toxic hepatopathy in cattle. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 29(3): 287-292.

Published

2020-01-01

How to Cite

Barbosa, A. A., dos Santos, E., Klaus, R., Rabassa, V. R., Soares, M. P., & Correa, M. N. (2020). Natural Poisoning by Xanthium cavanillesii in Cattle in the Southern Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 48. https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.101382

Most read articles by the same author(s)

> >>