DNA damage in homocystinuria: 8-oxo‑,8‑dihydro‑2’-deoxyguanosine levels in cystathionine-β-synthase deficient patients and the in vitro protective effect of N-acetyl‑L‑cysteine
Keywords:Cystathionine-β-synthase deficiency, oxidative stress, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro- 2’-deoxyguanosine, homocysteine, DNA damage, N-acetyl-L-cysteine
Introduction: Homocysteine (Hcy) tissue accumulation occurs in a metabolic disease characterized biochemically by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency and clinically by mental retardation, vascular problems, and skeletal abnormalities. Previous studies indicate the occurrence of DNA damage secondary to hyperhomocysteinemia and it was observed that DNA damage occurs in leukocytes from CBS-deficient patients. This study aimed to investigate whether an oxidative mechanism could be involved in DNA damage previously found and investigated the in vitro effect of N-acety-L-cysteine (NAC) on DNA damage caused by high Hcy levels.
Methods: We evaluated a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage in the urine of CBS‑deficient patients, as well as the in vitro effect of NAC on DNA damage caused by high levels of Hcy. Moreover, a biomarker of lipid oxidative damage was also measured in urine of CBS deficient patients.
Results: There was an increase in parameters of DNA (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’- deoxyguanosine) and lipid (15-F2t-isoprostanes levels) oxidative damage in CBS-deficient patients when compared to controls. In addition, a significant positive correlation was found between 15-F2t-isoprostanes levels and total Hcy concentrations. Besides, an in vitro protective effect of NAC at concentrations of 1 and 5 mM was observed on DNA damage caused by Hcy 50 μM and 200 μM. Additionally, we showed a decrease in sulfhydryl content in plasma from CBS-deficient patients when compared to controls.
Discussion: These results demonstrated that DNA damage occurs by an oxidative mechanism in CBS deficiency together with lipid oxidative damage, highlighting the NAC beneficial action upon DNA oxidative process, contributing with a new treatment perspective of the patients affected by classic homocystinuria.Keywords: Cystathionine-β-synthase deficiency; oxidative stress; 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro- 2’-deoxyguanosine; homocysteine; DNA damage; N-acetyl-L-cysteine
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