Use of the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence as an instrument to measure nicotine dependence

Rosa Cecília Pietrobon, Juarez Neuhaus Barbisan, Waldomiro Carlos Manfroi


Tobacco smoking is considered the leading cause of avoidable death. Use of cigarettes presents correlation with increased incidence of atherosclerotic disease and could be the largest contributor to growth in risk of diseases combined with other factors. It is classified as nicotine dependence and is included in the group of mental disorders and behaviors caused by use of psychoactive substances by the World Health Organization. It is important to have an instrument to evaluate the degree of nicotine dependence in the management of smokers. There is a correlation between degree of nicotine dependence and response to different treatments. Smokers with lower degree of dependence can be treated only with the cognitive behavioral approach. Those with higher degree require pharmacological therapy. This review of literature showed that the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) is used worldwide to evaluate severity of nicotine dependence. This article presents a review of FTND as an evaluation instrument in the management of smokers.


Tabagismo; Doenças Cardiovasculares;

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ISSN: 2357-9730




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The Clinical & Biomedical Research is licenced under Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional.