Sex and age as modifying factors in supragingival biofilm removal

Raísa Maldonado Severo, Francisco Wilker Mustafa Gomes Muniz, Harry Juan Rivera Oballe, Stephanie Anagnostopoulos Friedrich, Eduardo José Gaio, Juliano Cavagni, Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing


Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the biofilm removal capacity according to sex and age. Material and methods: Seventy individuals aged between 21 and 70 years were included. Modified Navy Board Index (MNBI) was performed by a calibrated examiner. Individuals brushed their teeth with a brush for a minute, and the MNBI was applied again. The volunteers were asked to use the brush for seven days, twice a day, with standardized toothpaste. On day 7, the same procedures of the first visit were made. The percentages of removal of supragingival biofilm (whole-mouth, interproximal and gingival margin line) were calculated for each of the experimental periods. Comparisons were performed between genders and age using the t-test for independent samples. The significance level adopted was 5%. Results: At baseline and after 7 days, women presented more dental plaque in whole mouth than men (p <0.05). Individuals ≤37 years old reduced more plaque in whole mouth and interdental sites than individuals with >37 years or older (p <0.05). The analysis of plaque reduction according to sex did not show any difference between groups. Conclusion: There was a greater potential for better efficacy of plaque removal in younger individuals. Gender does not affect such potential.


Biofilms; Age factors; Sex


Haas AN, de Castro GD, Moreno T, Susin C, Albandar JM, Oppermann RV, Rösing CK. Azithromycin as an adjunctive treatment of aggressive periodontitis: 12-months randomized clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2008 Aug;35(8): 696-704.

Gjermo P, Rösing CK, Susin C, Oppermann RV. Periodontal diseases in Central and South America. Periodontol 2000. 2002 Abr; 29(1):70-78.

Oppermann RV, Haas AN, Rösing CK, Susin C. Epidemiology of periodontal diseases in adults from Latin America. Periodontol 2000. 2015 Feb;67(1):13-33.

Davoglio RS, Aerts DRGC, Abegg C, Freddo SL, Monteiro L. Factors associated with oral health habits and use of dental services by adolescents. Cad Saude Publica. 2009 Mar;25(3):655-667.

Zakrzewska JM. Women as dental patients: are there any gender differences? Int Dent J. 1996 Dec;46(6):548-57.

Davidson PL, Rams TE, Andersen RM. Socio-behavioral determinants of oral hygiene practices among USA ethnic and age groups. Adv Dent Res. 1997 May;11(2): 245-253.

Fukai K, Takaesu Y, Maki Y. Gender differences in oral health behavior and general health habits in an adult population. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll. 1999 Nov; 40(4):187-193.

Wiener RC, Wu B, Do Crout RJ, De Plassman BL, McNeil DW, De Wiener MA, Kao E, De Caplan DJ. Hygiene self-care of older adults in West Virginia: effects of gender. J Dent Hyg. 2012 Summer;86(3):231-238.

Kawamura M, Wright FAC, Sasahara H, Yamasaki Y, Suh S, IwamotoY. An Analytical Study on Gender Differences in Self-Reported Oral Health Care and Problems of Japanese Employees. J Occup Health. 1999 Apr;41(2):104-111.

Fukuda H, Shinsho F, Nakajima K, Takahashi S, Tatara K. Oral health habits and the number of teeth present in Japanese aged 50-80 years. Community Dent Health. 1997 Dec;14(4):248-252.

Kocher T, Schwann C, Gesch D, Bernhardt Ó, John U, Meisel P, Baelum V. Risk determinants of periodontal disease - an analysis of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP 0). J Clin Periodontol. 2005 Jan;32(1):59-67.

Rosing CK, Cavagni J, Gaio EJ, Muniz FWMG, Oballe HJR, Ranzan N, Friedrich SA, Severo RM, Gittins E, Stewart B, Zhang YP. Efficacy of two soft-bristle toothbrushes in plaque removal: a randomized controlled trial. Braz Oral Res. 2016 Nov;30(1): e134.

Rustogi KN, Curtis JP, Volpe AR, Kemp JH, McCool JJ, Korn LR. Refinement of the Modified Navy Plaque Index to increase plaque scoring efficiency in gumline and interproximal tooth areas. J Clin Dent. 1992; 3(Suppl C):C9-12.

Pieterse H, Diamant Z. Good clinical practice in clinical interventional studies. Eur Clin Respir J. 2014;1.

Verbrugge LM. Gender and health: an update on hypotheses and evidence. J Health Soc Behav. 1985 Sep;26(3):156-182.

Ribeiro GR, Costa JL, Ambrosano GM, Garcia RC. Oral health of the elderly with Alzheimer's disease. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012 Sep;114(3):338-343.

Mello ALSFD, Padilha DMP. Instituições geriátricas e negligência odontológica. Rev Fac Odontol Porto Alegre. 2000;41(1): 44-48.

Salvi GE, Ramseier CA. Efficacy of patient-administered mechanical and/or chemical plaque control protocols in the management of peri-implant mucositis. A systematic review. J Clin Periodontol. 2015 Apr;42 (Suppl 16): S187-201.


Licença Creative Commons

e-ISSN 2177-0018 / ISSN 0566-1854.

descrição da foto descrição da foto descrição da foto descrição da foto descrição da foto descrição da foto descrição da fotodescrição da foto