SABIDURÍA, PENSAMIENTO POSTFORMAL Y AUTO-REGULACIÓN EN ADULTOS MAYORES

Deisy Krzemien

Resumo


Desde las últimas décadas en el campo de las Neurociencias Cognitivas se han dedicado numerosos esfuerzos al estudio del envejecimiento cognitivo normal, en particular a las capacidades de reserva cognitiva, y su relación con la conducta. A partir del reconocimiento del rol de los procesos cognitivos en la capacidad adaptativa de las personas, este artículo propone: 1) Analizar la relación entre la sabiduría, el pensamiento postformal y los recursos de auto-regulación SOC (Selección de metas, Optimización y Compensación) en adultos mayores. 2) Conocer si existen diferencias en la sabiduría y el pensamiento post-formal según la edad cronológica. Se utilizó un diseño descriptivo correlacional y trasversal. Se extrajo una muestra no probabilística, seleccionada intencionalmente, de 100 adultos mayores. Los resultados evidenciaron que el pensamiento postformal se halla relacionado al tipo de sabiduría reflexiva. Los adultos mayores tendieron a utilizar todos los recursos de auto-regulación, con un predominio de la selección restrictiva de metas y los recursos compensatorios. Los recursos de auto-regulación SOC se hallaron relacionados con la sabiduría pero no con el pensamiento postformal. Los datos obtenidos resultan de interés en el campo de la evaluación psicológica del procesamiento cognitivo en el envejecimiento normal, para la promoción del desarrollo de las potencialidades cognitivas, a fin de maximizar los recursos de auto-regulación de los ancianos.


Palavras-chave


Sabiduría. Pensamiento postformal. Auto-regulación. Cognición. Envejecimiento.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


ARDELT, Monika. Antecedents and effects of wisdom in old age: A longitudinal perspective on aging well. Research on Aging, Durham, North California, v. 2, n. 4, p. 360-394, Jul. 2000.

ARDELT, Monika. Empirical Assessment of a Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale. Research on Aging, Durham, North California, v. 25, n. 3, p. 275-324. May. 2003.

ARDELT, Monika. How wise people cope with crises and obstacles in life? ReVision: A Journal of Consciousness and Transformation, v. 28, n. 1, p. 7-19. Jan. 2005.

ARDELT, Monika; JACOBS, Steve. Wisdom, integrity, and life satisfaction in very old age. In: SMITH, Cecil. (Ed). Handbook of Research on Adult Learning and Development. New York: Routledge, 2009. P. 732-760.

BALTES, Marie; CARSTENSEN, Laura. Social-psychological theories and their applications to aging. In: Bengtson, Vern; Schaie, Warner. (Eds.). Handbook of Theories of Aging. NY: Springer. 1999. P. 209-226.

BALTES, Paul; MAYER, Karl (Eds.). The Berlin Aging Study: Aging from 70 to 100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2001.

BALTES, Paul; BALTES, Margret; FREUND, Alexandra; LANG, Frieder. The measurement of selection, optimization and compensation (SOC) by self-report: Technical Report 1999, (Materialien aus der Bildungsforschung No. 66). Berlin: Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung. 1999.

BALTES, Paul; LINDENBERGER, Ulman; STAUDINGER, Ursula. Life-span Psychology: Theory and application to intellectual functioning. Annual Review of Psychology, California, v. 50, p. 471-507, Feb. 1999.

BALTES, Paul B.; STAUDINGER, Ursula. Wisdom: A metaheuristic (pragmatic) to orchestrate mind and virtue toward excellence. The American Psychologist, Washington, v. 55, n. 1, p. 122-136, Jan. 2000.

BLANCHARD-FIELDS, Fredda; CHEN, Yiwei. Adaptive cognition and aging. American Behavioral Scientist, v. 39, n. 3, p. 231-248, Jan. 1996.

CARTWRIGHT, Kelly. Cognitive developmental theory and spiritual development. Journal of Adult Development, v. 8, n. 4, Special issue on spirituality and adult development, p. 213-220, Oct. 2001.

CORRAL IÑIGO, Antonio. De la lógica del adolescente a la lógica del adulto. Cap. El desarrollo intelectual después de las operaciones formales. Madrid: Editorial Trota. 1998. P. 39-50.

FREUND, Alexandra; BALTES, Paul. Life-management strategies of selection, optimization and compensation: Measurement by self-report and construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, v. 82, n. 4, p. 642-662. Apr. 2002.

GIGNAC, Monique; COTT, Cheryl.; BADLEY, Elizabeth. Adaptation to disability: Applying selective optimization with compensation to the behaviors of older adults with osteoarthritis. Psychology and Aging, v. 17, n. 3, p. 520-524. Sept. 2002.

GREVE, Werner; STAUDINGER, Ursula. Resilience in later adulthood and old age: Resources and potentials for successful aging. En CICCHETTI, Dante; COHEN, Donald. (Eds.). Developmental Psychopathology (2da ed.). NY: Wiley. 2006. P. 796-840.

IRIGARAY, Tatiana Quarti; TRENTINI, Clarissa Marceli; GOMES, Irenio; SCHNEIDER, Rodolfo Herberto. Funções cognitivas e bem-estar. Estudos Interdisciplinares sobre o Envelhecimento, v. 16, n. 2, p. 215-227. Dec. 2011.

KRAMER, Deirdre A. Development of an awareness of contradiction across de life-span and the question of pos-formal operations. En Commons, Michael L.; Richards, Francis A.; Armon, Cheryl. (Eds.), Beyond formal operations: Late adolescent and adult cognitive development, New York: Praeger. 1989. P. 133-159.

KRZEMIEN, Deisy. Contribuciones actuales de la Psicología del Desarrollo y del envejecimiento en la investigación de la sabiduría. Estudos Interdisciplinares sobre o Envelhecimento, v. 16, n. 2, p. 261-289. Dec. 2011.

KRZEMIEN, Deisy. El campo multidisciplinario de la Gerontología: Debate actual sobre demografía, desarrollo social e investigación del envejecimiento. Saarbrücken, Alemania: Editorial Académica Española. 2013.

KRZEMIEN, Deisy; RICHARD´s, María Marta. Sabiduría en adultos mayores. Un estudio comparativo de dos modelos. En RICHAUD, Maria Cristina; LEMOS, Viviana (Comps.). Psicología y otras Ciencias del Comportamiento. Compendio de Investigaciones Actuales. Entre Ríos: CIIPME-CONICET. 2011. V. 1, P. 173-196.

LABOUVIE-VIEF, Gisela; DIEHL, Manfred. Cognitive complexity and cognitive-affective integration: Related or separate domains of adult development? Psychology of Aging, Washington, v. 15, n. 3, p. 490-504, Sept. 2000.

LANG, Frieder; RIECKMANN, Nina; BALTES, Margret. Adapting to aging losses: Do resources facilitate strategies of Selection, Compensation and Optimization in every functioning? Journal of Gerontology, v. 57, n. 3, p. 501-509. Jun. 2002.

LAZARUS, Richard. Coping theory and research: Past, present and future. Psychometric Medicine, v. 55, p. 234-247. 1993.

LAZARUS, Richard; FOLKMAN, Susan. Estrés y procesos cognitivos. Barcelona: Martínez Roca. 1986.

NURMI, Jari-Erik. Age differences in adult life goals, concerns, and their temporal extension: A life course approach to future-oriented motivation. International Journal of Behavioral Development, v. 15, p. 487-508. Dec. 1992.

PASCUAL-LEONE, Juan. Attentional, dialectic and mental effort: Toward and organismic theory of life stages. In: COMMONS, Michael Lamport; RICHARDS, Francis Asbury; ARMON, Cheryl. (Eds.) Beyond formal operations: Late adolecent and adult cognitive development. New York: Praeger, 1984. P. 182-215.

ROTHERMUND, Klaus; BRANDTSTADTER, Jochen. Coping with deficits and losses in later life: From compensatory action to accommodation. Psychology and Aging, v. 18, n. 4. Dec. 2003.

SCHAIE, Warner. The impact of longitudinal studies on understanding development from young adulthood to old age. International Journal of Behavioral Development, v. 24, n. 3, 257-266. Sept. 2000.

SINNOTT, Jan. Cognitive development as the dance of adaptive transformation Neo-Piagetian perspectives on adult cognitive development. In: SMITH, M. Cecil. (Ed.). Handbook of Research on Adult Learning and Development. New York: Routledge, 2009. P. 103-134.

SINNOTT, Jan. The development of logic in adulthood: Postformal thought and its operation. New York: Plenum Press, 1998.

STAUDINGER, Ursula; JOOS, Markus. Interactive Minds. A Paradigm for the study of the social-interactive nature of human cognition and its lifespan development. Swiss Journal of Educational Sciences, v. 22, n. 3, p. 559-574. 2000.

STERN, Yaakov. Elaborating a hypothetical concept: Comments on the special series on cognitive reserve. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, v. 17, p. 639-642. Jul. 2011.

STERNBERG, Robert Jeffrey; JORDAN, Jennifer. (Eds.). A Handbook of wisdom: Psychological perspectives. Nueva York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

STERNBERG, Robert Jeffrey; JORDAN, Jennifer. (Eds.). A Handbook of wisdom: Psychological perspectives. Nueva York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

WIESE, Bettina; FREUND, Alexandra; BALTES, Paul. Selection, Optimization and Compensation: An action-related approach to work and partnership. Journal of Vocational Behavior, v. 57, n. 3, p. 273-300. Dec. 2000.

WROSCH, Carsten; SCHEIER, Michael; MILLER, Gregory; SCHULZ, Richard; CARVER, Charles. Adaptive self-regulation of unattainable goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, v. 29, n. 12, p. 1494-1508. Dec. 2003.

ZIEGELMANN, Jochen; LIPPKE, Sonia. Use of selection, optimization and compensation Strategies in health self-regulation: Interplay with resources and successful development. Journal of Aging and Health, v. 19, n. 3, p. 500-518. Jun. 2007.




Estudos Interdisciplinares sobre o Envelhecimento. ISSN: 1517-2473 (impresso) e 2316-2171 (eletrônico)
Qualis Capes 2016, área interdisciplinar: B2