Peritoneal Fluid Analysis of the Newborn Calves with Intestinal Atresia - a Clinical Approach

Hakan Salci, Serkan Catik, Emsal Sinem Ozdemir, Cuneyt Ozakin

Abstract


Background: Anomalies and fetal problems are encountered in all animals. Intestinal atresia is a congenital anomaly of both humans and animals. Intestinal atresia has four morphological types, and they can be observed in jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, rectum and anus (type I: mucosal atresia, type II: atretic ends separated by fibrous cord, type III: atretic ends separated by a “V” shaped mesenteric gap or atretic end coil like an “apple peel”, type IV: multiple atresia). In calves, it is also commonly encountered; it is still a question to be replied about the exact prognosis of the patients with intestinal atresia. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to evaluate peritoneal fluid analysis results of calves with intestinal atresia.

Materials, Methods & Results: Twenty-two calves were presented with abdominal distension and lack of defecation. Clinical and radiological findings pointed out the intestinal atresia. Blood samples were collected for routine hematological and serum total protein (TP) analysis. Peritoneal fluids were aspirated with sterile technique from the caudal abdomen, and biochemical features, cell contents and microbiological cultures of the peritoneal fluids were analyzed. Following to preoperative, surgical and necropsy findings, intestinal atresia were diagnosed as type II, III and IV in calves. Neutrophilic leukocytosis was observed in calves with type IV intestinal atresia. Red blood cells and platelet counts were determined in the peritoneal fluids. TP and density values of the peritoneal fluid were high in all cases. These results pointed the presence of the acute infection and peritonitis. Statistical comparison of each parameter showed that there was no significant difference between the types of intestinal atresia. Microbiologically, fecal origin bacteria were cultured in 12 calves.

Discussion: In general, four types of intestinal atresia are encountered in calves, and all types are fatal pathologies; thus, surgery should urgently be planned as soon as diagnostic work-ups are completed after birth. Peritoneal fluid analysis is a useful diagnostic choice because changes in the peritoneal fluid parameters help to diagnosis of the intra-abdominal pathology. Intestinal atresia as more common anomaly in Holstein, Jersey and Montafon breed calves. In animals with intestinal atresia, surgical treatment is not usually recommended due to economic reasons and small chance of postoperative success. Long-term survival rate of surgically treated animals depends on the type of intestinal atresia and applied surgical technique. Atresia recti and ani may occur simultaneously with atresia coli, and all atresias (atresia coli, ani, recti or ani et recti) can be successfully treated by surgery. Continuous distention of the large intestinal segments leads to ischemia, necrosis, peritonitis and bowel perforation. Peritoneal fluid analysis should include the classic parameters for diagnosis, but these analyses are often insufficient to identify the etiology or pathogenesis of the disease. An increase in total WBC count and percentage of the neutrophil cells in the peritoneal fluid indicate the acute infectious origin inflammation. Additional parameters in the peritoneal fluid analysis have been established to improve diagnostic precision and specific information. Presence or absence of the bacteria in the peritoneal fluid samples is important to characterize the transudate and exudate. Changings in the peritoneal fluid values does not related to type of the intestinal atresia in calves.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Abouelnasr K., Ishii M., Inokuma H., Kobayashi Y., Lee K. & Yamada K. 2012. Atresia coli in a Japanese black calf diagnosed by a barium sulphate enema contrast radiograph in the standing position: a case report. Veterinary Medicine. 57(7): 376-379.

Alacam E. 2010. Evcil Hayvanlarda Doğum ve Infertilite. Ankara: Medisan, pp.123-129.

Atalan G., Ozaydin I., Kilic E., Cihan M. & Kamiloglu A. 2003. Buzağılarda intestinal atresia olguları ve operatif sağaltımları: 54 olgu (1992-2000). Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi. 9(2): 113-118.

Belyansky L.S., Sayenko V.F., Furmanov J.A. & Churilova T.J. 2002. Bacterial translocation as a cause for septic complications in obstructive colonic ileus. Acta Chirurgica Belgica. 102: 75-77.

Burton S., Lofstedt J., Webster S. & McConkey S. 1997. Peritoneal fluid values and collection technique in young, normal calves. Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 26(1): 38-44.

Cecen G., Salci H., Caliskan G.U., Celimli N., Seyrek-Intas D. & Gorgul O.S. 2010. Modified colostomy technique for colonic atresia in calves. Veterinary Surgery. 39: 722-728.

Culp W.T.N. & Holt D.E. 2010. Septic peritonitis. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian. 32(10): E1-E15.

Hirsch V.M. & Townsend H.G.G. 1982. Peritoneal fluid analysis in the diagnosis of abdominal disorders in cattle: a retrospective study. Canadian Veterinary Journal. 23: 348-354.

Mendes L.C.N., Peiro J.R., Feitosa F.L.F., Luvizotto M.C.R., Borges A.S., Ciarlini P.C. & Perri S.H.V. 2005. Effect of age and abomasal puncture on peritoneal fluid, hematology, and serum biochemical analyses in young calves. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 19: 899-904.

Radostits O.M., Gay C.C., Hinchcliff K.W. & Constable P.D. 2006. Veterinary Medicine. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier, pp.199-203.

Ragetly G.R., Bennett R.A. & Ragetly C.A. 2011. Septic peritonitis: treatment and prognosis. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian. 33(10): E1-E6.

Suresh Kumar R.V., Veena P., Sankar P., Dhana Lakshmi N.D. & Kokila S. 2011. Surgical management of atresia recti-ani and coli in a Holstein Friesian Cross bred calf. Veterinary World. 4(4): 176-177.

Wilson A.D., Hirsch V.M. & Osborne A.D. 1985. Abdominocentesis in cattle: technique and criteria for diagnosis of peritonitis. Canadian Veterinary Journal. 26: 74-80.

Wittek T., Grosche A., Locher L.F., Alkaassem A. & Fürll M. 2010. Biochemical constituents of peritoneal fluid in cows. Veterinary Record. 166: 15-19.

Wittek T., Grosche A., Locher L.F. & Fürll M. 2010. Diagnostic accuracy of D-dimer and other peritoneal fluid analysis measurements in dairy cows with peritonitis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 24(5): 1211-1217.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.98189

Copyright (c) 2019 Hakan Salci, Serkan Catik, Emsal Sinem Ozdemir, Cuneyt Ozakin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.