Sporotrichosis Outburst after Cancer Chemotherapy in a Dog

Authors

  • Leonardo Tótola da Silva Departamento de Medicina Veterinária (DMV), Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Vila Velha.
  • Neriana Rosseti Intra Departamento de Medicina Veterinária (DMV), Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Vila Velha.
  • Carolina Magri Ferraz Departamento de Medicina Veterinária (DMV), Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Vila Velha.
  • Jeanne Saraiva da Paz Departamento de Medicina Veterinária (DMV), Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Vila Velha.
  • Ana Carolina de Jesus Pinto Departamento de Medicina Veterinária (DMV), Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Vila Velha.
  • Bruna Voltolin de Sena Departamento de Medicina Veterinária (DMV), Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Vila Velha.
  • Rodrigo dos Santos Horta Departamento de Medicina Veterinária (DMV), Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Vila Velha.
  • Fabio Ribeiro Braga Departamento de Medicina Veterinária (DMV), Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Vila Velha.
  • Fernando Luiz Tobias Departamento de Medicina Veterinária (DMV), Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Vila Velha.
  • Priscila Camargo Grandeiro Farias Departamento de Medicina Veterinária (DMV), Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Vila Velha.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.97397

Abstract

Background: Sporotrichosis is a dermatozoonosis that affects mammals in general, with the domestic feline (Felis catus) being the most epidemiologically important species. However, diagnosis of this disease in dogs is important considering the proximity with people and with other communicants. The epidemiology of sporotrichosis is already known in some states of Brazil, especially in the southeast region, but to the best of our knowledge there are no reports of sporotrichosis in non-human species in the state of Espírito Santo. This paper aimed at describing the first case of canine sporotrichosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

Case: A 10 year-old Bull Terrier male dog was presented with nodular non-ulcerated lesions on the head and nodular ulcerated lesion on the nasal planum. The dog had a previous diagnosis of a low-grade mast cell tumour and palpebral melanoma. Mast cell tumour was treated with scrotum ablation (and orchiectomy) and bilateral inguinal lymph node removal, followed by chemotherapy with twelve intravenous infusion of vinblastine, along with prednisolone. Cutaneous lesions in the head and nasal planum appeared two months after finishing chemotherapy. At further anamnesis, the pet´s responsible reported that the dog had the habit of hunting cats that entered the residence, which raised the hypothesis of sporotrichosis. An undiagnostic cytology was performed, followed by a fungal culture, positive for Sporothrix schenckii. Treatment was then initiated with itraconazol (Oficial generic drug), at a dose of 10mg/kg/SID, until clinical remission, obtained after 60 days, maintaining it for 60 more days. Patient showed completed recovery, with no further complatints after a follow-up of more than 220 days.

Discussion: Sporotrichosis is considered a rare disease in dogs, with isolated cases in the literature. The dog of the present report was diagnosed with sporotrichosis two months after the end of a chemotherapy treatment for a mast cell tumour. Therefore, it is suggested that the patient in this study was infected during an immunosuppressive phase. The same can occur with other immunosuppressive treatments, such as glucocorticoid, also included in the chemotherapy treatment of this patient, calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine) and mercaptopurine derivatives (azathioprine). Cytology is usually unconclusive for such lesions in dogs, once only a few yeast might be present. Nevertheless, the definitive diagnosis was obtained through fungal microculture. Treatment with itraconazol was successful but dogs might also present favorable responses to ioidine. Itraconazole is a fungistatic drug, fungicidal only in high doses. For this reason, if the fungistatic dose is not administered for sufficient time, recurrences may occur. In the last three years, Espirito Santo has become a new epidemiological scenario for sporotrichosis, and it is placed in the route of transmission, closely to Rio de Janeiro. Cats are the most affected animals and are commonly responsible for transmission to other species, including humans. The increase in cases of canine sporotrichosis requires its inclusion in the differential diagnosis of nodular-ulcerative lesions, along with cutaneous neoplasias and immune-mediated diseases.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Alberici F., Paties C.T., Lombardi G., Ajello L., Kaufman L. & Chandler F. 1989. Sporothrix schenckii var. luriei as the cause of sporotrichosis in Italy. European Journal of Epidemiology. 5(2): 173-177.

Almeida‐Paes R., de Oliveira M.M., Freitas D.F., do Valle A.C., Zancope‐Oliveira, R.M. & Gutierrez‐Galhardo M.C. 2014. Sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Sporothrix brasiliensis is associated with atypical clinical presentations. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 8(9): 3094.

Atencia S., Papakonstantinou S., Leggett B., McAllister H. & Mooney C.T. 2014. Systemic fungal infection in a dog: a unique case in Ireland. Irish Veterinary Journal. 67: 1-5.

Bazzi T., Melo S.M.P., Fighera R.A. & Kommers G.D. 2016. Características clínico-epidemiológicas, histomorfológicas e histoquímicas da esporotricose felina. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 36: 303-311.

Barros M.B.L., Schubach T.P, Coll J.O, Gremião I.D., Wanke B. & Schubach A. 2010. Esporotricose: a evolução e os desafios de uma epidemia. Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica. 27: 455-460.

Barros M.B., Schubach A.O., Schubach T.M., Wanke B. & Lambert-Passos S.R. 2008. An epidemic of sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: epidemiological aspects of a series of cases. Epidemiology and Infection.136: 1192-1196.

Catalán M. & Montejo J.C. 2006. Antifúngicos sistémicos. Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. 23: 39-49.

Chomel B.B. 2015. Emerging and re-emerging zoonoses of dogs and cats. Animals. 4: 434-445.

De Araujo M.R., Anderson M., Fernandes G.F., De Camargo Z.P. & De Hoog G.S. 2015. Human sporotrichosis beyond the epidemic front reveals classical transmission types in Espírito Santo, Brazil. Mycoses. 58: 485-490.

Farooqui S.M. & Youness H. 2018. The infection returns: a case of pulmonary sporotrichosis relapse after chemotherapy. Case Reports in Medicine. 93: 1-4.

Horta R.S., Lavalle G.E., Costa M.P., Moura L.L., Marcinowska A. & Araújo R.B. 2017. Outcome of adjuvant chemotherapy with lomustine, vinblastine and chlorambucil on management of canine mast cell tumour of high to intermediate risk. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia. 69: 1426-1436.

Kwon-Chung K. & Bennet J. 1992. Sporotrichosis. In: Kwon-Chung K. & Bennet J. (Eds). Medical Mycology. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger: pp.707-729.

Larsson C. 2011. Esporotricose. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science. 48: 250-259.

Pavelski M., Seixas S.V., Warth J.F.G., Souza C., Dittich R.L & Froes T.R. 2018. Fungal pneumonia in dogs and cats with pulmonary clinical signs in southern Brazil. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 38 (4): 696-702.

McAtee B.B., Cummings J.J., Cook A.K., Lidbury J.C., Haseltine J.C. & Willard M.D. 2017. Oportunistic invasive cutaneous fungal infections associated with administration of cyclosporine to dogs with immune-mediated disease. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 31: 1724-1729.

Macêdo-Sales P.A., Souto S.R.L.S., Destefani C.A., Lucena R.P., Rocha E.M.S. & Baptista A.R.S. 2018. Diagnóstico laboratorial da esporotricose felina em amostras coletadas no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: limitações da citopatologia por imprint. Revista Pan-Amazônica de Saude. 9: 13-19.

Madrid I.M., Mattei A.S., Fernandes C.G., Nobre M.O. & Meireles M.C.A. 2012. Epidemiological findings and laboratory evaluation of sporotrichosis: a description of 103 cases in cats and dogs in Southern Brazil. Mycopathologia. 173: 265-73.

Montenegro H., Rodrigues A.M., Galvão Dias M.A., da Silva E.A., Bernardi F. & Camargo Z.P. 2014. Feline sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis: an emerging animal infection in São Paulo, Brazil. BMC Veterinary Research. 10: 1-10.

Miranda L.H.M., Quintella L.P., Santos I.B., Menezes R.C., Figueiredo F.B., Gremião I.D.F., Okamoto T., Oliveira R.V.C., Pereira S.A., Tortelly R. & Schubach T.M.P. 2009. Histopathology of canine sporotrichosis: a morphological study of 86 cases from Rio de Janeiro (2001-2007). Mycopathologia 168: 79-87.

Mascarenhas M.B., Lopes N.L., Pinto T.G., Costa T.S., Peixoto A.P., Ramadinha R.R. & Fernandes J.I. 2018. Canine sporotrichosis: report of 15 advanced cases. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 38: 477-481.

Teoh F. & Pavelka N. 2016. How chemotherapy increases the risk of systemic candidiasis in cancer patients: current paradigm and future directions. Pathogens. 5(1): 1-16.

Thomson M. 2007. Squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal planum in cats and dogs. Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice. 22(2): 42-45.

Vaan G.A.M., van Munter P.J.J. & Bakkeren & J.A.J.M. 1982. Recovery of immune function after cessation of maintenance therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) of childhood. European Journal of Pediatrics. 139(2): 113-117.

Published

2019-01-01

How to Cite

da Silva, L. T., Intra, N. R., Ferraz, C. M., da Paz, J. S., de Jesus Pinto, A. C., de Sena, B. V., Horta, R. dos S., Braga, F. R., Tobias, F. L., & Grandeiro Farias, P. C. (2019). Sporotrichosis Outburst after Cancer Chemotherapy in a Dog. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 47. https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.97397

Most read articles by the same author(s)

> >>