Comparison of the Effects of Isoflurane and Sevoflurane General Anaesthesia after Induction by Propofol on Clinical and Physiological Measurements in Calves

Selvinaz Yakan, Ozgur Aksoy

Abstract


Background: In veterinary surgical operations for cats and dogs, inhalation anaesthesia is known to be a good option for general anaesthesia in long operations or emergency cases. Studies have revealed that during inhalation anaesthesia, the heart and respiratory functions of the animals are more stable compared to injectable anaesthesia. However, there are few studies performed with the use of inhalation anaesthesia in ruminants. In this research, the goal is to evaluate the effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane after induction with propofol in calves based on clinical and physiological parameters and to find a more reliable strategy for general anaesthesia in ruminants.

Materials, Methods & Results: The research was carried out on 30 calves, from new-born up to 3-months-old, undergoing surgery operation. Each group consisted of 15 animals that were divided as isoflurane and sevoflurane. For premedication, atropine was administered at a dose of 0.04 mg/kgvia subcutaneous injection in calves. For induction, 15 min after atropine application, propofol was given at 5-6 mg/kgvia intravenous infusion. Then, endotracheal intubation was performed and inhalation anaesthesia began at 5 min after induction. In the isoflurane group, the onset of anaesthesia concentration was set to 3-5% and the maintenance was set to a concentration of 1.5-3%. In the sevoflurane group, the onset of anaesthesia concentration was set to 5-7% and the maintenance was set to a concentration of 2.5-4%. To monitor the calves, the heart rate (HR), the pulse rate (PR), the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), the respiratory rate (RR), the rectal temperature (RT) and the electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements were recorded before anaesthesia, the premedication, the induction periods, at 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 min after the onset of inhalation anaesthesia during the operation period. Blood samples were taken before anaesthesia, premedication, induction periods, at 30 and 75 min during the operation and the red blood cell (RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count, the amount of haemoglobin (HGB), the haematocrit concentration (HCT), and the platelet (PLT) count were evaluated. Based on the findings, isoflurane and sevoflurane suppressed the cardiovascular system minimally. Both anaesthetic agents caused decreases that did not exceed the physiological limits compared to the measurements taken before the initiation of anaesthesia. Although no significant differences were detected between the groups (P > 0.05) at clinical parameters, the RT differences were regarded as statistically significant according to the measurements that were taken before anaesthesia at all measurement times (P < 0.05). In both groups, the changes that occurred in the P wave, the PR interval, and in the QRS, R and T waves remained within the reference values given in the literature. Both anaesthetic agents have similar effects on the ECG. The dramatic no changes throughout anaesthesia in terms of the amount of HGB and HCT, the RBC, the WBC, and the PLT were not statistically significant, which may be associated with good tissue perfusion.

Discussion: Since no serious complications occurred with either anaesthetic option, we have concluded that isoflurane and sevoflurane have similar effects on the cardiopulmonary systems of calves. In addition, the effects of propofol, which is used for induction, have been evaluated and observed and this drug is an effective and reliable option to initiate inhalation anaesthesia. The research on the use of this anaesthetic in calves is limited and most of the existing studies investigated its combination with injectable anaesthetics. As a result, in this research, we concluded that isoflurane and sevoflurane induce similar physiological measurement results, blood parameters, and ECG results and that both anaesthetics cause minimal complications.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Apaydin N. & Kibar M. 2008. Effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane anaesthesia on cardiovascular system during the experimental laparotomy of dogs. Journal of Health Sciences. 7(3): 162-167.

Apaydin N. & Koc B. 2005. Comparison of the effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane anaesthesia on hemodynamic and biochemical parameters in dogs. Veteriner Cerrahi Dergisi. 11(1/4): 31-35.

Bednarski R.M. & Muir III W.W. 1991. Closed system delivery of halothane and isoflurane with a vaporize in the anesthetics circle. Veterinary Surgery. 20 (5): 353-356.

Bettschart-Wolfensberger R., Semder A., Alibhai H., Demuth D., Aliabadi F.S. & Clarke K.W. 2000. Cardiopulmonary side-effects and pharmacokinetics of an emulsion of propofol (Disoprivan®) in comparison to propofol solved in polysorbate 80 in goats. Journal of Veterinary Medicine A. Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine. 47(6): 341-350.

Canpolat I. 1992. Köpeklerde yeni bir inhalasyon anesteziği olan isoflurane ile halothane’nin karşılaştırılması. Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Fırat University. 6: 1-2.

Cantalapiedra A.G., Villanueva B. & Pereira J.L. 2000. Anaesthetic potency of isoflurane in cattle: Determination of the minimum alveolar concentration. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 27(1): 22-26.

Cecen G., Topal A., Gorgul O.S. & Akgoz S. 2009. The cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane and halothane anaesthesia during spontaneous or controlled ventilation in dogs. Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University. 56: 255-261.

Crystal G.J., Zhou X., Gurevicius J., Czinn E.A., Salem M.R., Alam S., Piotrowski A. & Hu G. 2000. Direct coronary vasomotor effects of sevoflurane and desflurane in in situ canine hearts. Anesthesiology. 292: 1103-1113.

Dagli R. 2013. Effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane, and propofol on thyroid function. Cumhuriyet Medical Journal. 35: 373-381.

Driessen B., Nann L., Benton R. & Boston R. 2006. Differences in need for hemodynamic support in horses anesthetized with sevoflurane as compared to isoflurane. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 33(6): 356-367.

Duke T. 1995. A new intravenous anesthetic agent: propofol. Canadian Veterinary Journal. 36(3): 181-183.

Duzgun O. & Perk E.C. 1998. Köpeklerde ketamin indüksiyonu ile gerçekleştirilen isofluran anestezisi ve kan tablosuna etkileri üzerine araştırmalar. Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul University. 24: 379-401.

Ebert T.J., Harkin C.P. & Muzi M. 1995. Cardiovascular responses to sevoflurane: A review. Veterinary Anaesthesia Analgesia. 81: 11-22.

Espino L., Suarez L.M., Lopez-Becerio A. & Santamarina G. 2001. Electrocardiogram reference values for the buzzard. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 37(4): 680-685.

Greene S.A., Keegan R.D., Valdez R.A. & Knowles D.K. 2002. Cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane in Holstein's calves. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 29(2): 59-63.

Gunay C. & Unsaldi S. 2000. The effects of enflurane, isoflurane and propofol anesthetics on blood parameters in dogs. Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Fırat University. 14(1): 129-135.

Guzel O., Perk E.C., Aktas M. & Devecioglu Y. 2005. Administration of inhalation in rabbits using the endotracheal intubation technique. Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul University. 3: 139-148.

Hall L.W., Clarke K.W. & Trim C.M. 2001. Principle of sedation, analgesia and premedication in veterinary anaesthesia. In: Veterinary Anaesthesia. 10th edn. London: WB Saunders, pp.75-112.

Hayat A. & Bulut S. 2003. Comparison of effects on some hematological and biochemical values and recovery from anaesthesia of halothane and sevoflurane in dogs. Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Science. 19: 49-54.

Hayat A., Sindak N. & Karacal N. 2006. The use of propofol in Kilis goats. Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi Araştırmaları. 36-39.

Hedenqvist P., Roughan J.V., Antunes L., Orr H. & Flecknell P.A. 2001. Induction of anaesthesia with desflurane and isoflurane in the rabbit. Laboratory Animals. 35(2): 172-179.

Hikasa Y., Hokushin S., Takase K. & Ogasawara S. 2002. Cardiopulmonary, hematological, serum biochemical and behavioral effects of sevoflurane compared with isoflurane or halothane in spontaneously ventilating goats. Small Ruminant Research. 43(2): 167-178.

Hikasa Y., Ohe N., Takase K. & Ogasawara S. 1997. Cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane in cats: comparison with isoflurane, halothane, and enflurane. Research in Veterinary Science. 63(3): 205-210.

Hikasa Y., Saito K., Takase K. & Ogasawara S. 2000. Clinical, cardiopulmonary, hematological and serum biochemical effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane anaesthesia in oxygen under spontaneous breathing in sheep, Small Ruminant Research. 36(3): 241-249.

Lee L. 2010. Ruminant & swine anesthesia. Veterinary Surgery I. VMED 7412: 1-15.

Martin M.F., Carrosco M.S., Gargallo J.U. & Ezquerra L.J. 2002. Endocrine, haematological and metabolic responses to sevoflurane anaesthesia in lambs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 28(3): 132-139.

Muir W.W. 2007. Considerations for general anesthesia. In: Thurmon J.C. Tranquilli W.J. & Grimm K.A. (Eds). Lumb Jones Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. 4th edn. Ames: Blackwell, pp.7-30.

Mutoh T., Kanamura A., Suzuki H., Tsubone H., Nishimura R. & Sasaki N. 2001. Respiratory Reflexes in spontaneously breathing anesthetized dogs in response to nasal adminitration of sevoflurane, isoflurane or halotane. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 62(3): 311-319.

Mutoh T., Nishimura R. & Sasaki N. 2001. Effects of nitrous oxide on mask induction of anaesthesia with sevoflurane or isoflurane in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 62(11): 1727-1733.

Ozaydin I., Atalan G., Uzun M., Kilic E. & Cenesiz M. 2001. Assessment of anesthetic properties and clinical, cardiovascular and respiratory effects of medetomidine, propofol and ketamine combination in dogs. Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafkas University. 7(1): 71-76.

Ozturk A. & Altug ME. 2007. Effects of repeated application of isoflurane and desflurane on electrocardiogram anaesthesia induction and recovery characteristics in rats. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy. 51: 635-640.

Read M.R., Read E.K., Duke T. & Wilson D.G. 2002. Cardiopulmonary effects and induction and recovery characteristics of isoflurane and sevoflurane in foals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 221(3): 393-398.

Reid J., Nolan A.M. & Welsh E. 1993. Propofol as an induction agent in the goat: a pharmacokinetic study. Journal of the Veterinary Pharmacology Therapeutics. 16(4): 488-493.

Reibold T.W. 2015. Ruminants. In: Grimm K.A., Lamont L.A., Tranquilli W.J., Greene S.A. & Robertson S.A. (Eds). Lumb Jones Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. 5th edn. Ames: Blackwell, pp.912-927.

Skarda R.T., Bednarski R.M., Muir W.W. & Hubbell J.A.E. 1995. Inhalation Anesthesia. Handbook of Veterinary Anesthesia. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, pp.133-141.

Steffey P.E. & Mama K.R. 2007. Inhalation anesthetics. In: Thurmon J.C. Tranquilli W.J. & Grimm K.A. (Eds). Lumb Jones Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. 4th edn. Ames: Blackwell, pp.355-93.

Teixeira F.J., Luna S.P.L., Cruz M.L., Braz J.Z., Massone F. & Noqueira C.S. 2007. A study of the effect of hemorrhage on the cardiorespiratory actions of halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane in the dog. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 34(2): 107-116.

Topal A. 2005. Veteriner Anestezi. Bursa: Nobel & Güneş, pp.107-128.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.92279

Copyright (c) 2019 Selvinaz Yakan, Ozgur Aksoy

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.