Addition of Palm Oil in Diet of Dairy Ewes Reduces Saturates Fatty Acid and Increases Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Milk

Anderson Elias Bianchi, Talyta Zortea, Chrystian Jassana Cazzarotto, Gustavo Machado, Luis Gustavo Pellegrini, Neila Silvia Pereira dos Santos Richards, Matheus Dellaméa Baldissera, Aleksandro Schafer da Silva, Alessandro Cazonatto Galvão, Vicente de Paula Macedo

Abstract


Background: Sheep milk production is becoming an important alternative in the agricultural sector. It is used principally to produce fine cheeses, yogurts, and ice creams, and these produced from sheep’s milk are beneficial to human health. Previous study with palm oil shows increase in fat levels in sheep’s milk. Our hypothesis for increased fat in milk is that palm oil increases lipid metabolism as well as tissue reserves. Sheep consuming this palm oil will have a change in the fatty acid profile of milk, increasing levels of unsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as fatty acid profile of milk these ewes fed of palm oil.

Materials, Methods & Results: Thirty-six lactating sheep were divided in four groups (n = 9), with each group receiving various concentrations of palm oil in diet (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% which corresponds to T 0, 2, 4 and 6, respectively). The diets in each treatment were isoproteic and isoenergetic. The experiment lasted 120 days, and blood and milk samples were collected on days 60 and 12 of the experiment. Blood was collected for seric analysis of lipid metabolism. Was collected milk samples and analyzed the content of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). An increase (P < 0.05) in triglyceride and coleterol levels in the serum of the animals that received the highest concentrations of palm oil in the diet (T4 and T6). The centesimal composition of fat, lactose, and protein in milk was not different at days 60 and 120 (P > 0.05) between groups, but numerically the animals in T4 and T6 had higher percentage of fat in milk. A decrease in milk SFA levels was observed on day 120 at T6. There was a significant reduction in caproic acid, caprylic acid, hendecanoic acid, lauric acid, and pentadecyl acid. The levels of palmitic acid (C16:0) increased when compared with the control group. Also at 150 days, it was observed a reduction in the percentage of area capric acid and myristic acid in animals that had higher doses of calcium salts in the diet, different from stearic acid, which increased. A variability in MUFA levels was observed during the evaluated periods, i.e. heptadecenoic acid decreased on days 60 and 120 for animals of T6; an increased content of elaidic acid was observed on day 60, and levels of vaccenic acid decreased on day 120 at 6% palm oil. A decrease in PUFA levels was observed on day 60 at T6, specifically a significant reduction in alpha-linolenic and arachidonic acid, as well as levels of conjugated linoleic acid 1 decreased on day 120 for animals supplemented with 6% of palm oil.

Discussion: The addition of plama oil in the diet of dairy sheep increased seric levels of triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as positively altered the composition of fatty acids in milk, making a product healthier to the consumer. This study showed that the addition of 2% and 4% palm oil in the feed of dairy sheep promoted a decrease in several SFAs associated with coronoary heart disease after 60 days of treatment. On the other hand, the addition of 6% palm oil promoted an increase of total SFA levels after 60 days of treatment, while decreaseing total PUFA levels. This can be considered harmful to consumers, since several SFA are associated with coronary heart diseases, and several PUFA are linked with reductions in inflammation, stroke, oxidative stress and hepatic disorders. In summary, the consumption of sheep milk who received the diets with 2% and 4% of palm oil can exert beneficial effects for consumers, and may be an option for farmers to increase the milk yield of sheep, and to reduce the profile of saturated fatty acids in milk.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Abubakr A.R., Alimon A.R., Yaakub H., Abdullah N. & Ivan M. 2013. Digestibility, rumen protozoa, and ruminal fermentation in goats receiving dietary palm oil by-products. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agriculturas Sciences. 12(1): 147-154.

Adeyemi K.D., Sazili A.Q., Ebrahimi M., Samsudin A.A., Alimon A.R., Karim R., Karsani S.A. & Sabow A.B. 2016. Effects of blend of canola oil and palm oil on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance, rumen fermentation and fatty acids in goats. Animal Science Journal. 87(12): 1137-1147.

Allen M.S. 2000. Effects of diet on short-term regulation of feed intake by lactating dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science. 83(11): 1598-1624.

Bianchi A.E., Macedo V.P., França R.T., Lopes S.T.A., Lopes L.S., Stefani L.M., Volpato A., Lima H.L., Paiano D., Machado G. & Da Silva A.S. 2014. Effect of adding palm oil to the diet of dairy sheep on milk production and composition, function of liver and kidney, and the concentration of cholesterol, triglycerides and progesterone in blood

serum. Small Ruminant Research. 117(1) 78-83.

Bianchi A.E., Macedo V.P. & Da Silva A.S. 2017. Adding palm oil to the diet of sheep alters fatty acids profile on yogurt: Benefits to consumers. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 89(3): 2471-2478.

Bianchi A.E., Macedo V., Da Silva A.S. & Silverira A.F. 2018. Effect of adding protected fat to the diet of dairy sheep on the production performance and milk composition. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 47(2): 265-276.

Bligh E.G. & Dyer W.J. 1959. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology. 37(7): 911-917.

Campos F.P., Nussio C.M.B. & Nussio L.G. 2004. Methods of food analysis. Piracicaba: Fealq, 135p.

Castro T., Manso T., Jimeno V., Del Alamo M. & Mantecón A.R. 2009. Effects of dietary sources of vegetable fats on performance of dairy ewes and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk. Small Ruminant Research. 84(1): 47-53.

Chakraborty N., Muhie S., Kumar R., Gautam A., Srinivasan S., Sowe B., Dimitrv G., Miller S., Jett M. & Hammamieh R. 2017. Contributions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cerebral neurobiology: an integrated omics approach with epigenomic focus. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 42(1): 84-94.

Chouinard P.Y., Girard V. & Brisson G.J. 1998. Fatty acid profile and physical properties of milk fat from cows fed calcium saltg of fatty acids with varying unsaturation. Journal of Dairy Science. 81(3): 471-481.

Cottrell R.C. 1991. Introduction: nutritional aspects of palm oil. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 53(7): 989-1009.

Dain A., Repossi G., Diaz-Gerevini G.T., Vanamala J., Das U.N. & Eynard A.R. 2016. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) modulate metabolic and inflammatory markers in a spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus model (Stillman Salgado rats). Lipids in Health and Disease. 15(2): 205-220.

Drudi L.M., Schaller M.S., Hiramoto J., Gasper W., Harris W.S., Hills N.K. & Grenon S.M. 2017. Predictors of change in omega-3 index with fish oil supplementation in peripheral artery disease. Journal of Surgical Research. 210(1): 124-131.

Duarte L.M.D., Stumpf J.W., Fischer V. & Salla L.E. 2005. Efeito de diferentes fontes de gordura na dieta de vacas Jersy sobre o consumo, a produção e a composição do leite. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 34(12): 2020-2028.

Galan P., Kesse-Guyot E., Czernichow S., Briancon S., Blacher J. & Hercberg S. 2010. Effects of B vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids on cardiovascular diseases: a randomised placebo controlled trial. British Medical Journal. 341: 6273.

Gebauer S.K., Destaillats F., Dionisi F., Krauss R.M. & Baer D.J. 2015. Vaccenic acid and trans fatty acid isomers from partially hydrogenated oil both adversely affect LDL cholesterol: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 102(10): 1339-1346.

Hartman L. & Lago R.C.A. 1973. Rapid preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from lipids. Laboratory Practice. 22(3): 475-476.

Holy E.W., Forestier M., Richter E.K., Akhmedov A., Leiber F., Camici G.G., Mocharla P., Luscher T., Beer J.H. & Tanner F.C. 2011. Dietary α-linolenic acid inhibits arterial thrombus formation, tissue factor expression, and platelet activation. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 31(11): 1772-1780.

Kim S.C., Adesogan A.T., Badinga L. & Staples C.R. 2007. Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on feed intake, digestibility, and fatty acid profiles of the ruminal contents, liver, and muscle of growing lambs. Journal of Animal Science. 85(6): 706-716.

Lee H.S., Barraza-Villarreal A., Biessy C., Duarte-Salles T., Sly P.D., Ramakrishnan U., Rivera J., Herceg Z. & Romieu I. 2014. Dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acid during pregnancy modulates DNA methylation at IGF2/H19 imprinted genes and growth of infants. Physiological Genomics. 46(7): 851-857.

Lima S.M.V., Freitas Filho A.D., Castro A.D. & Souza H.R.D. 2000. Desempenho da cadeia produtiva do dendê na Amazônia Legal. Manaus: SUDAM/Fundação do Desenvolvimento da UFPE, 157p.

Madden J., Brunner A., Dastur N. D., Tan R.M., Nash G.B., Rainger G.E., Shearman P.C., Calder P.C. & Grimble R.F. 2007. Fish oil induced increase in walking distance, but not ankle brachial pressure index, in peripheral arterial bdisease is dependent on both body mass index and inflammatory genotype. Prostaglandins, Leu kotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 76(2): 331-340.

Mensink R.P., Zock P.L., Kester A.D. & Katan M.B. 2003. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60-controlled trials. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 77(12): 1146-1155.

Micha R. & Mozaffarian D. 2010. Saturated fat and cardiometabolic risk factors, coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: a fresh look at the evidence. Lipids. 45(6): 893-905.

Mir Z., Goonewardene L.A., Okine E., Jaegar S. & Scheer H.D. 1999. Effect of feeding canola oil on constituents, conjugated linoleico acid (CLA) and long chain fatty acids in goats milk. Small Ruminant Research. 33(1): 137-143.

Nestel P.J., Noakes M., Belling G.B., Mcarthur R. & Clifton P.M. 1995. Effect on plasma lipids of interesterifying a mix of edible oils. The American Journal ff Clinical Nutrition. 62(7): 950-955.

Nguemeni C., Gouix E., Bourorou M., Heurteaux C. & Blondeau N. 2013. Alpha-linolenic acid: A promising nutraceutical for the prevention of stroke. PharmaNutrition 1(1): 1-8.

Nogueira M.A., Oliveira C.P., Alves V.A.F., Stefano J.T., Dos Reis Rodrigues L.S., Torrinhas R.S., Cogliati B., Barbeiro H., Carrilho F.J. & Waitzberg D.L. 2016. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in treating non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition. 35(4): 578-586.

Pellegrini L.G., Cassanego D.B., Gusso A.P., Mattanna P. & Silva S.V. 2012. Características físico-químicas de leite bovino, caprino e ovino. Synergismus Scyentifica. 7(1): 1-3.

Praagman J., De Jonge E.A., Kiefte-De Jong J.C., Beulens J.W., Sluijs I., Schoufour J.D., Hofman A., Schouw Y.T. & Franco O.H. 2016. Dietary saturated fatty acids and coronary heart disease risk in a Dutch middle-aged and elderly population. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 116: 307578.

Queiroga C.R.D.E., Maia M.D.O., Medeiros A.N.D., Costa R.G., Pereira R.Â.G. & Bomfim M.A.D. 2010. Produção e composição química do leite de cabras mestiças Moxotó sob suplementação com óleo de licuri ou de mamona. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 39(2): 204-209.

Rajaram S. 2014. Health benefits of plant-derived α-linolenic acid. The American Journal of Clininical Nutriton. 100: 443S-448S.

Sambanthamurthi R., Sundram K. & Tan Y. 2000. Chemistry and biochemistry of palm oil. Progress in Lipid Research. 39(4): 507-558.

Zong G., Li Y., Wanders A.J., Alssema M., Zock P.L., Willet W.C., Hu F.B. & Sun Q. 2017. Intake of individual saturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women: two prospective longitudinal cohort studies. BMJ. 355: e5796.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.89180

Copyright (c) 2018 Anderson Elias Bianchi, Talyta Zortea, Chrystian Jassana Cazzarotto, Gustavo Machado, Luis Gustavo Pellegrini, Neila Silvia Pereira dos Santos Richards, Matheus Dellaméa Baldissera, Aleksandro Schafer da Silva, Alessandro Cazonatto Galvão, Vicente de Paula Macedo

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.