Clinicopathological Evaluation of Disseminated Metastases of Transmissible Venereal Tumor in a Spayed Bitch

Hasan Alkan, Fatma Satilmis, Mehmet Eray Alcigir, Mehmet Bugra Kivrak, Ibrahim Aydin

Abstract


Background: Although transmissible venereal tumor (TVT, transmissible venereal sarcoma, Sticker’s sarcoma) that affects dogs and other canids can be seen in many countries, it especially emerges in the countries which homeless dog population is very high. Female dogs are more susceptible than males. Transmissible venereal tumor is usually transmitted to genital organs during coitus and occasionally by social behavior such as sniffing and licking. The tumor is generally observed in the posterior part of the vagina. The tumor usually appears in various sizes, in the appearance of cauliflower, red and fragile. Metastases are rarely reported in cases with TVT. Metastases have been detected in lung, liver, tonsils, skin, lymph nodes, muscles, spleen. The diagnosis of transmissible venereal tumor is achived by considering the history of the animal, gross lesions, cytological examination and histopathology. Chemotherapy is frequently used in the treatment of TVT. In addition, radiotherapy, cryosurgery, surgical incision and immunotherapy are rarely applied for treatment. Chemical agents such as doxorubicin, vincristine sulfate, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate are preferred for chemotherapy.

Case: Metastases to all mammary lobes, cervix uteri, neck, skin, gluteal muscles, the oropharyngeal region, and primary vaginal mass were described in spayed bitch, a 10-year old and mixed breed. The clinical examination manifested, fragile and hemorrhagic masses which resemble cauliflower in the vagina, neck, and inguinal region. Furthermore firm and multilobular masses in all mammary lobes, oropharyngeal region, and gluteal muscles of right leg were detected. Firstly, vaginal cytology was performed in order to confirm. In vaginal cytology, round to polyhedral shaped transmissible venereal tumor cells including cytoplasmic vacuoles and polychromatic nuclei were identified. Histopathologically, solid areas included oval- to round-shaped cells with prominent, hyperchromatic nuclei in all masses. Also, some of them comprised mitotic figures in their nuclei. In general, the tumor cells were separated by thin fibrous septa. Additionally, the cells were completely infiltrated to the mammary gland. In contrast, oropharyngeal and subdermal region of neck consisted more solid areas under the epidermis. There was lymphocyte infiltration at the periphery of the cells. For gluteal mass, TVT cells were confined in muscle bundles. Transmissible venereal tumor cases are often located in genital organs and their metastases are rarely encountered in comparison with other tumors. In this case report, metastases to cervical tissue, neck skin, oropharyngeal mucosa and gluteal muscles, mammary lobes are found.

Discussion: When the sexual activity is high, the incidence of TVT increases. It especially develops in bitches in estrus. Breed, sex and age are not a cause of predisposition for TVT. Transmissible venereal tumors’ malignancy can increase in some cases, although TVT is known as a benign tumor. Prevalence of metastases was found fairly low in the studies. Metastases to mammary region, to subcutaneous region, to brain, to eye, to lung, to uterus, to ovary, to liver, to spleen have been reported. In conclusion, even if a bitch is acyclic, transmissible venereal tumor can be developed and thus the risk of its disseminated metastasis must be considered. Moreover, since the masses have not regresed for a long time, this situation may be related to severe immunosupression in the bitch.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Bastan A., Acar D.B. &Cengiz M. 2008. Uterine and ovarian metastasis of transmissible venereal tumor in a bitch. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal. 32(1): 65-66.

Birhan G. &Chanie M. 2015. A review on canine transmissible venereal tumor: from morphologic to biochemical and molecular diagnosis. Academic Journal of Animal Diseases. 4(3): 185-195.

Chikweto A., Kumthekar S., Larkin H., Deallie C., Tiwari K.P., Sharma R.N. & Bhaiyat M.I. 2013. Genital and extragenital canine transmissible venereal tumor in dogs in Grenada, West Indies. Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 3: 111-114.

Das U. & Das A.K. 2000. Review of canine transmissible venereal sarcoma. Veterinary Research Communications. 24(8): 545-556.

Ferreira A.J.A., Jaggy A., Varejäo A.P., Ferreira M.L.P., Correia J.M.J., Mullas J.M., Almeida O., Oliveira P. & Prada J. 2000. Brain and ocular metastases from a transmissible venereal tumour in a dog. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 41(4): 165-168.

Kose A.M., Cizmeci S.U., Aydin I., Dinc D.A., Maden M. & Kanat O. 2013. Disseminated metastatic transmissible venereal tumour in a bitch. Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 29(1): 53-57.

Laporte C.M., Jaffe T., Loeffler D., Lewis T.P. & Schick A.E. 2016. Multifocal metastatic cutaneous and mucosal transmissible venereal tumour in a female puppy. Veterinary Record Case Reports. 4(1): e000285.

Lopes P.D., dos Santos A.C.A.A. & Silva J.E.S. 2015. Canine transmissible venereal tumor in the genital area with subcutaneous metastases in the head - case report. Revista Portuguesa de Ciências Veterinárias. 110(593-594): 120-123.

Martins M.I., Ferreira S.F. & Gobello C. 2005. The canine transmissible venereal tumor: etiology, pathology, diagnosis

and treatment. Recent Advances in Small Animal Reproduction. A1233-0405.

Nak D., Mısırlıoglu D., Nak Y., Seyrek-Intas K. & Tek H.B. 2004. Bir köpekte meme metastazlı transmissible venereal tümör olgusu. Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi. 20(1): 99-102.

Oruc E., Sağlam Y.S., Cengiz M. & Polat B. 2011. Bir köpekte bulaşıcı venereal tümör meme metastazının ince iğne aspirasyonu ile sitolojik teşhisi ve vincristine sülfat ile tedavisi. Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi. 6(1): 63-69.

Ozyurtlu N., Bademkıran S., Unver O., Yıldız F. & Icen H. 2008. Dişi bir köpekte transmissible venereal tümörün abdominal ve subkutan inguinal bölgeye metastazı. Dicle Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 1(2): 48-51.

Park M.S., Kim Y., Kang M.S., Oh S.Y., Cho D.Y., Shin N.S. & Kim D.Y. 2006. Disseminated transmissible venereal tumor in a dog. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 18(1): 130-133.

Purohit G. 2008. Canine transmissible venereal tumor: a review. The Internet Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 6(1): 1-7.

Stockmann D., Ferrari H.F., Andrade A.L., Lopes R.A., Cardoso T.C. & Luvizotto M.C. 2011. Canine transmissible venereal tumors: aspects related to programmed cell death. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Pathology. 4(1): 67-75.

Varughese E.E., Singla V.K., Ratnakaran U. & Gandotra V.K. 2012. Successful management of metastasis of transmissible

venereal tumour to lung and mammary region. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Canine and Feline Reproduction - ISCFR(Whistler, Canada).




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.86160

Copyright (c) 2018 Hasan Alkan, Fatma Satilmis, Mehmet Eray Alcigir, Mehmet Bugra Kivrak, Ibrahim Aydin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.