Aneurisma de artéria ilíaca em equinos

Ravy Guerra de Oliveira, Tairon Pannuzio Dias e Silva, Ana Beatriz Nobrega dos Santos, Carlos Henrique Camara Saquetti, Samuel Rodrigues Alves, Mariana Damazio Rajão


Background: Aneurysm is a dilation and a weakening of the vessel, usually 2 times higher than the normal diameter of the
vessel. Considering the complexity of the definitive diagnosis of iliac artery aneurysm, it is necessary to use technology by
imaging, aiming an early diagnosis. Thus, application of Doppler ultrasound allows the study of the horse’s vascular system
allowing various types of diagnoses among these members and vascularization for diagnosing thrombi in the abdominal
aorta and mesenteric arteries in side verminotic aneurysm. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of two
cases of aneurysm involving the aortic-iliac diagnosed by Doppler ultrasound.

Cases: The study describes two cases of the aneurism in horses diagnosed by Doppler ultrasound at the Veterinary Hos-
pital of UPIS. The animals showed clinical signs of edema in the pelvic limb, with varied degree of lameness 3 to 4, pain and wound did not heal and septic arthritis. The final diagnosis was obtained by Doppler ultrasound. In case one, Doppler ultrasound analysis indicated high arterial distension and blood flow disorganized, suggesting aneurysm. The patient did not respond adequately to therapy and due to the severity of these changes, the euthanasia was performed for definitive diagnostic. On the other hand, in case two, in the imaging examination, it was diagnosed with a dilated aortic Iliac left four times larger than the right and disorganized blood flow suggesting aneurysm. As a result of diagnosis and unfavorable prognosis, it was decided to stop sports activities by the animal mainly due to the progressive increase of the aneurysm.

Discussion: Between the two reported cases, one animal died with excessive extension of injury and in another it was possible to establish a palliative treatment being observed improvement in clinical symptomatology. The aneurysm was defined as a dilation of the artery, which may be congenital or acquired. In this case, it was not possible to define the main cause. However, their characteristics, visualized through ultrasound and necropsy corroborate to described in the literature, such as slow growth, achieve considerable volume may compress, displace and destroy neighboring structures. They also tend to increase in size until they break, causing bleeding. In the reports one and two it was found aneurysm verum, where in the animal of the report one was carried out euthanasia due to the rupture of the iliac artery. Surgical procedures are not usually indicated, due to the rapid evolution of the aneurysm culminating in hemorrhage and death of the patient. Ultrasound in these cases was also able to measure the extent of the lesion, to evaluate the blood flow and consequently the turbulence of blood. It is a disease with an unfavorable prognosis, by the progressive increase of the aneurysm or due to the possibility of aneurysm rupture. According to the results of this report can be concluded that Doppler ultrasound should be included in the routine practice of equine veterinary clinic, mainly in athletic horses to diagnose arterial lesions with complicated detection on clinical examination. The clinical symptomatology presented by the animals can be included in routine practice. The aneurysm of the iliac artery if was not diagnosed in time can cause death of the animal, however, if it was detected early, it can be established a palliative treatment extending the duration of animal life.

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