The Effects of Separate and Combined Use of PGF2α and GnRH Hormones and the Addition of Βeta-Carotene on Fertility Parameters in Dairy Cows with Ovarian Cysts
Background: Ovarian cysts are commonly observed pathologies, which interfere with normal cyclic activity and adversely affect fertility in cows. Beta-carotene is effective in the reduction of reproductive problems by inducing the natural defence mechanisms of the body. There are several methods that can be used for the treatment of ovarian cysts. The separate and combined use of GnRH and PGF2α commonly uses in the treatment of ovarian cysts. Therefore, in the presented study the effects of Beta-carotene (βC) addition for the treatment of ovarian cysts either with GnRH solely or GnRH and PGF2α in combination on the fertility parameters of dairy cows were investigated.
Materials, Methods & Results: Seventy-six Holstein Friesian cows having ovarian cysts diagnosed by ultrasonography (USG) were divided into three groups. Cows in Group I (GI, n = 27), were injected with GnRH (Buserelin acetate, 5 mL, im), PGF2α (Tiaprost-trometamol, 5 mL, im) and βC (20 mL/cow, into 4 regions by im route). In Group II (GII, n = 25) GnRH (Buserelin acetate, 5 mL, im) and PGF2α (Tiaprost-trometamol, 5mL, im) were administrated while GnRH (Buserelin acetate, 5 mL, im) solely in Group III (GIII, n = 24). Cysts were monitored via USG, and blood samples were collected on the on day of treatment (day 0) and on the 7th and 14th days following the administrations. Cows shoving oestrous were inseminated and pregnancy diagnoses were performed on the 40th day following insemination. Treatment results showed that there were statistically no significant differences between GI and GII (P > 0.05). Only numerical difference obtained in time from therapy to pregnancy and overall pregnancy index (P > 0.05). Overall pregnancy rate (85 %), first service pregnancy rates (40 %) and overall pregnancy index (2.11) in GI were found significantly higher than GIII (53.3 %; 20 %; 4.12) [P < 0.05]. No significant difference was observed in progesterone (P4) levels between the groups (P > 0.05). It was found that βC administrations significantly increased βC levels in GI than GII and GIII on the 7th and 14th days (P < 0.05).
Discussion: One of the most common problems encountered in modern dairy production is the development of ovarian cysts. Treatments for ovarian cyst are numerous and variable, and have changed considerably over the years. In the present study, GnRH and PGF2α were administered together as a combination, and as a result of this combined use, higher percentages were obtained for both pregnancy rate and fertility parameters in GI and GII, in comparison to the group administered with GnRH alone (GIII). Better outcome from combination therapy (GnRH and PGF2α) may be due to the fact that luteal thickening in the walls of cysts was determined by ultrasonography, but P4 values were not identified immediately and the treatments were not categorized in accord with these values. No statistically significant differences were determined between GI and GII concerning the fertility parameters investigated, however numerical and proportional differences were observed. βC levels were significantly higher on day 7 and 14 after treatment in GI which were administered βC additionally to the treatment protocol for ovarian cysts. This statistical difference suggests that administration of βC in combination therapy is also effective in the treatment of ovarian cysts. In conclusion, it was determined that high pregnancy rates were obtained by the combined treatment of ovarian cysts (GnRH + PGF2α) and number of inseminations per conception were at desired limits. Better percentile and numerical fertility parameters were achieved in the group, which additionally received βC, high numbers of infertility cases, βC supplementation could be a viable option for treatment.
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