Prevalence and Associated Factors of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Area of Mato Grosso, Brazil

Mahyumi Fujimori, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de Almeida, Álvaro Felipe Lima Ruy Dias, Juliana Yuki Rodrigues, Luciano Nakazato, Maria de Fátima Madeira, Valéria Régia Franco Sousa

Abstract


Background: Canine visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic and severe disease of great interest to global public health. In Brazil, the main species causing visceral leishmaniasis is Leishmania chagasi [syn. Leishmania infantum], which is transmitted by sandflies of the species Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lu. cruzi. This study aimed to determine the risk factors and prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs residing in endemic areas of the municipality of Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso.

Material, Methods & Results: The study was conducted in the Várzea Grande neighbourhoods Jardim Eldorado, Parque Sabiá and São Mateus, which are located in the Brazilian Cerrado region and are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. The Várzea Grande is a mostly commercial and industrial municipality and relies on subsistence farming. To describe the general characteristics of the dog population and housing environment, an interview was carried out with the dog owners in each household. This interview addressed local demographics and the identification of dogs to establish epidemiological aspects of canine illness and risk factors for infection. The dogs were examined and physically restrained for blood collection by jugular venipuncture. For serological testing, a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. A Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test was used to identify associations between independent variables and the seroprevalence of dogs with anti-Leishmania antibodies. It were collected blood from 521 animals, including 160 belonging to Jardim Eldorado, 129 to Parque Sabiá and 232 to São Mateus. Of these animals, 120 were reactive by ELISA, with a prevalence of 23.0%. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) according to gender, age, racial definition, origin, time with family, presence of ectoparasites, or the presence of people with skin wounds at home or on other pets. The major risk factor for canine infection was fur length; dogs with short fur were 2.2 times more likely to be infected than dogs with long fur.

Discussion: The prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in endemic areas was found to be similar to studies in Cuiaba, a city in Várzea Grande, which also included neighbourhoods endemic for visceral leishmaniasis as study areas. Other studies have shown prevalence rates that differ from those found in this study. This difference may either be because the neighbourhoods in this study had already experienced outbreaks of the disease or because serum samples were cross-reactive with other trypanosomatids. While infection was more readily detected in dogs with clinical signs, asymptomatic dogs with anti-Leishmania antibodies were found in greater numbers, which is consistent with the literature. Hair length was the only factor associated with canine leishmaniasis in this study; short-haired animals were most at risk of contracting the disease because they had more skin exposure to sandflies during blood feeding. In conclusion, endemic districts of Várzea Grande had high prevalence rates of canine visceral leishmaniasis, and a short length coat was associated with infection.


Keywords


Leishmania chagasi; epidemiology; dog; cerrado.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Almeida A.B.P.F., Faria R.P., Pimentel M.F.A., Dahroug M.A.A., Turbino N.C.M.R. & Sousa V.R.F. 2009. Inquérito soroepidemiológico de leishmaniose canina em áreas endêmicas de Cuiabá, Estado de Mato Grosso. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical. 42(2): 156-159.

Almeida A.B.P.F., Sousa V.R.F., Cruz F.A.C.S., Dahroug M.A.A., Figueiredo F.B. & Madeira M.F. 2012. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: seroprevalence and risk factors in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária. 21(4): 359-365.

Barboza D.C.P.M., Gomes Neto C.M.B., Leal D.C., Bittencourt D.V.V., Carneiro A.J.B., Souza B.M.P.S. Oliveira L.S. Julião F.S. Souza V.M.M. & Franke C.R. 2006. Estudo de coorte em áreas de risco para leishmaniose visceral canina, em municípios da Região Metropolitana de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal. 7(2): 152-163.

Belo V.S., Werneck G.L., Barbosa D.S., Simões T.C., Nascimento B.W.L., Silva E.S. & Struchiner C.J. 2013. Factors Associated with Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Americas: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 7(4): e2182.

Castro-Júnior J.G., Freire M.L., Campos S.P.S., Scopel K.K.G., Porrozzi R., Da Silva E.D., Colombo F.A., da Silveira R.C., Marques M.J. & Coimbra E.S. 2014. Evidence of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum infection in dogs from Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, based on Immunochromatographic Dual-Path Platform (DPP®) and PCR assays. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo. 56(3): 225-229.

Costa D.N.C.C., Codeço C.T., Silva M.A. & Werneck G.L. 2013. Culling Dogs in Scenarios of Imperfect Control: Realistic Impact on the Prevalence of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 7(8): e2355.

Coura-Vital W., Ker H.G., Roatt B.M., Soares R.D.O.A., Leal G.G.A., Moreira N.D., Oliveira L.A., Menezes Machado E.M., Morais M.H., Correâ-Oliveria R., Carneiro M. & Reis A.B. 2014. Evaluation of Change in Canine Diagnosis Protocol Adopted by the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control Program in Brazil and a New Proposal for Diagnosis. PLoS One. 9(3): e91009.

Coura-Vital W., Reis A.B., Fausto M.A., Leal G.G.A., Marques M.J., Veloso V.M. & Carneiro M. 2013. Risk Factors for Seroconversion by Leishmania infantum in a Cohort of Dogs from an Endemic Area of Brazil. Plos One. 8(8): e71833.

Coura-Vital W., Reis A.B., Reis L.E., Braga S.L., Roatt B.M., Aguiar-Soares R.D., Marques M.J., Veloso V.M. & Carneiro M. 2013. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: incidence and risk factors for infection in a cohort study in Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology. 197(3-4): 411-417.

Curi N.H.A., Paschoal A.M.O., Massara R.L., Marcelino A.P., Ribeiro A.A., Passamani M. Demétrio G.R. & Chiarello A.G. 2014. Factors Associated with the Seroprevalence of Leishmaniasis in dogs living around Atlantic Forest Fragments. PLoS One. 9(8): e104003.

Dantas-Torres F. 2006. Situação atual da epidemiologia da leishmaniose visceral em Pernambuco. Revista de Saúde Pública. 40(3): 537-541.

Grimaldi Júnior G., Teva A., Ferreira A.L., Santos C.B., Pinto I.S., Azevedo C.T & Falqueto A. 2012. Evaluation of a novel chromatographic immunoassay based on Dual-Path Platform technology (DPP® CVL rapid test) for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine Hygiene. 106(1): 54-59.

Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). 2013. Cidades. Disponível em: http://www.ibge.gov.br/ cidadesat/default.php. [Accessed online November 2013].

Julião F.S., Souza B.M.P.S., Freitas D.S., Oliveira L.S., Laranjeira D.F., Dias-Lima A.G., Souza V.M.M., BarrouinMelo S.M., Moreira Jr. E.D., Paule B.J.A. & Franke C.R. 2007. Investigação de áreas de risco como metodologia complementar ao controle da leishmaniose visceral canina. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 27(8): 319-324.

Laurenti M.D., Rossi C.N., Matta R.V.L., Tomokane T.Y., Corbett C.E.P., Secundino N.F.C., Pimenta P.F. & Marcondes M. 2013. Asymptomatic dogs are highly competent to transmit Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi to the natural vector. Veterinary Parasitology. 196(3-4): 296-300.

Marzochi M.C.A., Fagundes A., Andrade M.V., Souza M.B., Madeira M.F., Mouta-Confor E., Schubach A.O. & Marzochi K.B. 2009. Visceral leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: eco-epidemiological aspects and control. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical. 42(5): 570-580.

Ministério da Saúde (MS). 2006. Secretaria De Vigilância Em Saúde. Departamento De Vigilância Epidemiológica. Manual de Vigilância e Controle da Leishmaniose Visceral. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde, 120 p.

Mestre G.L.C. & Fontes C.J.F. 2007. A expansão da epidemia de leishmaniose visceral no Estado de Mato Grosso, 1998-2005. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical. 40(1): 42-48.

Missawa N.A. & Borba J.F. 2009. Leishmaniose visceral no município de Várzea Grande, estado de Mato Grosso, no período de 1998 a 2007. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical. 42(5): 496-502.

Morais A.N., Sousa M.G., Meireles L.R., Kesper Jr. N. & Umezawa E.S. 2013. Canine visceral leishmaniasis and Chagas disease among dogs in Araguaína, Tocantins. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária. 22(2): 225-229.

Ribeiro A.L.M & Missawa N.A. 2002. Spatial distribution of phlebotomine species in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, in the period of 1996 to 2001. Entomología y Vectores. 9: 33-34.

Savani E.S.M.M., Schimonsky B.V., Camargo M.C.G.O. & D’áuria S.R.N. 2003. Vigilância de leishmaniose visceral americana em cães de área não endêmica, São Paulo. Revista de Saúde Pública. 37(2): 260-262.

Silva E.S., Gontijo C.M.F. & Melo N.M. 2005. Contribution of molecular technique to the epidemiology of neotropical Leishmania species. Trends in Parasitology. 21(12): 550-552.

Teixeira Neto R.G., Giunchetti R.C., Carneiro C.M., Vitor R.W.D.A., Coura-Vital W., Quaresma P.F., Ker H.G., Melo L.A., Gontijo C.M. & Reis A.B. 2010. Relationship of Leishmania-specific IgG levels and IgG avidity with parasite density and clinical signs in canine leishmaniasis. Veterinary Parasitology. 169(3-4): 248-257.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.81301

Copyright (c) 2018 Mahyumi Fujimori, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de Almeida, Álvaro Felipe Lima Ruy Dias, Juliana Yuki Rodrigues, Luciano Nakazato, Maria de Fátima Madeira, Valéria Régia Franco Sousa

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.