The Role of Androgens in Mammals Folliculogenesis

Livia Brunetti Apolloni, Jamily Bezerra Bruno, Benner Geraldo Alves, José Ricardo de Figueiredo

Abstract


Introduction: Steroid hormones production is a physiological process termed steroidogenesis. An important stage of this process is the conversion of androgens into estrogens through aromatase enzyme. Furthermore, androgens are important in the process of folliculogenesis, promoting follicular growth in different species. Thus, the aim of this review was to present the process of synthesis, mechanism of action, and importance of androgens in folliculogenesis. Additionally, the main results of in vitro culture of ovarian cells in the presence of these hormones were emphasized.

Review: Folliculogenesis begins in prenatal life in most of species and can be defined as the process of formation, follicular growth, and oocyte maturation. Preantral follicles represent 95% of the follicular population and assisted reproductive technologies have been developed (e.g., Manipulation of Oocytes Enclosed in Preantral Follicles - MOEPF) in order to avoid the great follicle loss that occurs naturally in vivo by atresia. The MOEPF aim to obtain a large number of competent oocytes from preantral follicles and then subject to in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture for embryo production. However, the development of an efficient medium to ensure the follicular survival and oocyte maturation is the major challenge of this biotechnology. To achieve the success on in vitro culture, the effects of substances as androgens on follicular development have been evaluated. Androgens are steroid hormones produced in theca cells (TC) that are fundamental for follicular growth. These cells provide all the androgens required by the developing follicles for conversion into estrogens by the granulosa cells (GC). Androgens receptors (AR) are localized in cell cytoplasm of all follicular categories, being more expressed in preantral follicles. The androgen pathway initiates through its connection to its receptor, making a complex androgen-AR, that in the nucleus helps on the process of gene transcription related with follicular survival. This mechanism is androgen receptor genomic activity. In addition to genomic action, there is an androgen receptor non-genomic activity. This occurs through activation of AR and its interaction with different signaling molecules located on the cell membrane, triggering events that aid in the follicular development. Regardless of the androgens actions, ovarian cells of several species subjected to in vitro culture have shown the importance of these hormones on the follicle development. Recent studies demonstrated that androgens addition on the culture medium stimulated the activation of preantral follicles (bovine and caprine), antrum formation (swine), survival (non-primate), and oocyte maturation (antral follicles; bovine). Also, some studies suggest that the addition of these hormones on in vitro culture is dose-dependent and species-specific.

Conclusion: This review shows the role of androgens in different stages of follicular development and its action as a substrate for steroidogenesis and transcription of genes related to follicular survival and oocyte maturation. However, when these hormones should be added during in vitro follicular culture and which concentration is required remains unclear, being necessary more studies to elucidate these aspects.


Keywords


follicles; in vitro culture; androgens; steroidogenesis.

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.81075

Copyright (c) 2018 Livia Brunetti Apolloni, Jamily Bezerra Bruno, Benner Geraldo Alves, José Ricardo de Figueiredo

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