Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Goats in Southern Brazil

Anderson Barbosa de Moura, André Ribeiro, Antonio Pereira de Souza, Marcio Orides da Silva, Gustavo Machado, Vanderlei Klauck, Rafael Pazinato, Aleksandro Schafer Da Silva

Abstract


Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidium, obligate intracellular protozoan, with complex life cycle, affecting virtually all-animal species homoeothermics. Goats are considered susceptible to infection by T. gondii, alterations being reported as pathological fetal death (with subsequent reabsorption), abortion, mummification, and/or the birth of weak goats. Because of these consequences to the animal, the disease is investigated throughout the Brazilian territory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and identify risk factors in goats.

Materials, Methods & Results: It were collected 654 blood samples from goats distributed on west and mountainous regions of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The number municipalities with the highest numbers of goats were used, with an expected prevalence of 25%, error of 3.2% and confidence level of 95%. All collected samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and 216 (33.02%; 95% CI 29.43-36.77) had antibodies against T. gondii (IFA ≥ 1: 64). Titration 1:64 was observed more frequently (60.2%; 130/216) among seropositive animals. The region with the highest prevalence was the west, i.e., more prone to infections present, with 1.16 more chances than the mountainous region. Animals Boer were more likely to T. gondii infection, being race is a risk factor for disease. When the presence of cats on the property, and these animals had chances of direct contact with cats, the chance of infection increased significantly, being 1.04 times higher went compared with lack of this feature. Regarding age, the animals aged two to five years had higher seropositivity (77.8%). Statistical analysis of effect-cause studies reported a relationship between soropositive animals and neurological problems (P ≤ 0.05), but no relation was found for T. gondii infection and reproductive problems (P > 0.05).

Discussion: In the state of Santa Catarina, approximately 33% of the goats were seropositive for T. gondii, according to results of this study. Several other studies has been performed on T. gondii antibodies detection in Brazil, such as Paraná which was 44.68%, in Rio Grande do Norte was 17.1%, in Rio de Janeiro was 29.12%, in Maranhão was 36.95%, in Bahia was 17.4%, in Minas Gerais was 21.4%, in Alagoas was 39% and in Rio Grande do Sul was 30%. The type of food and water source given to the animals was not considered a risk factor for T. gondii infection, although some authors mention that cat feces contaminated with oocysts of the parasite can be more easily ingested in the diet with concentrated (cats have access) and natural water sources. This study showed that 53% of the animals studied had contact with cats, and this variable was considered a risk factor for disease. Statistically, unverified relationship between reproductive problems and goats seropositive for T. gondii, although of approximately 24% of the animals studied showed some reproductive problems (abortion, mummified or heat repetition). In the effect-cause analysis, neurological issues were related to infection by T. gondii in goats, the that can easily be explained because the parasitic cysts of T. gondii may persist in the central nervous system for a long period. The results suggest that infection by T. gondii occurs in goats in two regions of Santa Catarina, in addition, and the risk factors related to disease was between both studied regions, race and presence and contact with cats, just as there is a relation between disease and neurological disorders in goats.


Keywords


goat; Toxoplasma gondii; neurological disorders.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alvarado-Esquivel C., Garcia-Machado C., Vitela-Corrales J., Villena I. & Dubey J.P. 2012. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic goats in Durango State, Mexico. Veterinary Parasitology. 183(1-2): 43-46.

Araújo F.R., Sarti E.C., Balbuena C.B., Carvalho C.M.E. & Ramos J.K. 1998. Levantamento sorológico para Toxoplasma gondii em caprinos na microrregião de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul. Revista Ensaios e Ciência. 2(2): 141-148.

Barros A.J.D. & Hirakata V. 2003. Alternatives for regression in cross-seccional studies: an empirical comparision of models that directly estimate the prevalence ratio. BMC Medical Research Methodology. 3(1): 21-22.

Camargo M.E. 1964. Improvided technique of indirect immunofluorescence for serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical. 6(3): 117-118.

Carneiro A.C.A.V. 2006. Soro-epidemiologia da toxoplasmose caprina e ovina no estado de Minas Gerais. 134f. Belo Horizonte, MG. Dissertação (Mestrado em Parasitologia) - Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.

Costa H.F., Stachissini A.V.M., Langoni H., Pandovani C.R., Gennari S.M. & Modolo J.R. 2012. Reproductive failures associated with antibodies against caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in goats in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science. 49(1): 67-72.

Deddens J.A. & Petersen M.R. 2008. Approaches for estimating prevalence ratios. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 65(7): 501-506.

Dubey J.P. 1987. Toxoplasmosis in goats. Agriculture Practice. 8(1): 43-52.

Dubey J.P. 1988. Lesions in transplacentally induced toxoplasmosis in goats. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 49(6): 905-909.

Dubey J.P. & Beattie C.P. 1988. Toxoplasmosis of animals and man. 2nd edn. Boca Raton: CRC Press Inc, 220p.

Dubey J.P., Lindsay D.S. & Speer C.A. 1998. Structures of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, bradyzoites and sporozoites and biology and desenvolviment of tissue cysts. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 11(2): 267-299.

Engeland I.V., Waldeland H., Kindahl H., Ropstad E. & Andressen O. 1996. Effect of Toxoplasma gondii infection on the development of pregnancy and on endocrine foetal-placental function in the goat. Veterinary Parasitology. 67(1-2): 61-74.

Figliuolo L.P.C., Rodrigues A.A.R., Viana R.B., Aguiar D.M., Kasai N. & Gennari S.M. 2004. Prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in goats from São Paulo State, Brazil. Small Ruminant Research. 55(1): 29-32.

Frenkel J.K., Hassanein K.M., Hassanein R.S., Brown E., Thulliez P. & Quiteronunez R. 1995. Transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in Panama-City. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 53(5): 458-468.

Garcia, G. 2010. Soroepidemiologia da toxoplasmose caprina na mesorregião metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná - Brasil. 123f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências Biológicas) - Curso de Pós-graduação em Microbiologia, Parasitologia e Patologia. Universidade Federal do Paraná.

Garcia J.L., Navarro I.T., Ogawa L. & Oliveira R.C. 1999. Soroprevalência do Toxoplasma gondii em suínos, bovinos, ovinos e equinos, e sua correlação com humanos, felinos e caninos, oriundos de propriedades rurais do norte do Paraná, Brasil. Ciência Rural. 29(1): 91-97.

Gondim L.F.P., Barbosa H.V., Ribeiro Filho C.H.A. & Saeki H. 1999. Serological survey of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in goat, sheep, cattle and water buffaloes in Bahia State, Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology. 82(3): 273-276.

Gatkowska J., Dziadek B., Dzitko K., Dlugonska H. & Wieczorek M. 2012. Behavioral changes in mice caused by Toxoplasma gondii invasion of brain. Parasitology Research. 111(1): 53-58.

Jittapalapong S., Sangvaranond A., Pinyopanuwat N., Chimnoi W., Khachaerm W., Koizumi S. & Maruyama S. 2005. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic goats in Satun Province, Thailand. Veterinary Parasitology. 127(1): 17-22.

Kamerkar S. & Davis P.H. 2012. Toxoplasma on the brain: understanding host-pathogen interactions in chronic CNS infection. Journal of Parasitology Research. 2012: 589295.

Lynfield R., Hsu H.W. & Guerina N.G. 1999. Screening methods for congenital toxoplasmosis and risk of disease. Lancet. 353(9168): 1899-1900.

Maciel K.P. & Araujo F.A.P. 2004. Inquérito sorológico para detecção de anticorpos de Toxoplasma gondii em caprinos (Capra hircus) criados nos municípios de Gravataí e Viamão, região da Grande Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias. 3(2): 121-125.

McAuley J., Boyer K. M., Patel D., Mets M., Suvsher C. & Roizen N. 1994. Early and longitudinal evaluations of treated infants and children and untreated historical patients with congenital toxoplasmosis: the Chicago collaborative treatment trial. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 18(1): 38-72.

Medronho R.A., Bloch K.V., Raggio R. & Werneck G.L. 2009. Epidemiologia. 2.ed. São Paulo: Atheneu, 685p.

Mehdi N.A., Kazacos K.R. & Carlton W.W. 1983. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in goats. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association. 183(1): 115-117.

Modolo J.R., Lagoni H., Padovani C.R., Barrozo L.V., Leite B.L.S., Gennari S.M. & Stachissini A.V.M. 2008. Avaliação da ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii, em soros de caprinos do estado de São Paulo, e associação com variáveis epidemiológicas, problemas reprodutivos e risco à saúde pública. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 28(12): 606-610.

Munday B.L. & Manson R.W. 1979. Toxoplasmosis as a cause of perinatal death in goats. Australian Veterinary Journal. 55(10): 485-487.

Navarro I.T., Vidotto O., Giraldi N. & Freire R.L. 1992. Toxoplasma gondii, isolamento em carnes e cérebro de suínos. Semina: Ciências Agrárias. 13(1): 10-15.

Neto J.O.A., Azevedo S.S., Gennari S. M., Funada M.R., Pena H.F.J., Araujo A.R.C.P., Batista C.S.A., Silva M.L.C.R., Gomes A.A.B., Piatti R.M. & Alves C.J. 2008. Prevalence and risk factors for anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in goats of the Seridó Oriental microregion, Rio Grande do Norte state, Northeast region of Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology. 156(3-4): 329-332.

Plugge N.F., Ferreira F.M., Ricgartz R.R.T.B., Siqueira A. & Dittrich R.L. 2011. Occurrence of antibodies against Neospora caninum and/or Toxoplasma gondii in dogs with neurological signs. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária. 20(3): 202-206.

Reis C.R., Lopes F.M.R., Gonçalves D.D., Freire R.L., Garcia J.L. & Navarro I.T. 2007. Occurrence of anti- Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in caprines from Pitanga City, Paraná State, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science. 44(5): 358-363.

Silva A.V., Cunha E.L.P., Meireles L.R., Gottschalk S., Mota R.A. & Langoni H. 2003. Toxoplasmose em ovinos e caprinos em duas regiões do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Ciência Rural. 33(1): 115-119.

Tenter A.M., Heckeroth A.R. & Weiss L.M. 2000. Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans. International Journal for Parasitology. 30(12-13): 1217-1258.

Uzêda R.S., Fernández S.Y., Jesus E.E.V., Pinheiro A.M., Ayres M.C.C., Spinola S., Barbosa Junior H.V. & Almeida M.A.O. 2004. Fatores relacionados à presença de anticorpos IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii em caprinos leiteiros do Estado da Bahia. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal. 5(1): 1-8.

Weissmann J. 2003. Presumptive Toxoplasma gondii abortion in a sheep. Canadian Veterinary Journal. 44(4): 322324.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.81073

Copyright (c) 2018 Anderson Barbosa de Moura, André Ribeiro, Antonio Pereira de Souza, Marcio Orides da Silva, Gustavo Machado, Vanderlei Klauck, Rafael Pazinato, Aleksandro Schafer Da Silva

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.