Comparison of Clinical and Hemodynamic Effects of Isoflurane and Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Calves

Rahime Yaygingul, Ali Belge, Ibrahim Akin, Cengiz Unsal, Osman Bulut, Nuh Kilic


Background: Inhalation anesthesia is the preferred method for use on many animal species, including ruminants, due to its superiority over the injectable anesthetics. The most commonly used inhalation anesthetics are isoflurane and sevoflurane The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia on the cardiovascular system of calves.

Materials, Methods & Results: A total of 20 calves (11 male, 9 female) between 1 and 6 months in age and 50 to 85 kg in body weight were used. The calves were divided randomly into two groups of 10 each, with one group being administered isoflurane and the other sevoflurane. An intramuscular dosage of 0.1 mg/kg of xylazine was administered to the calves as premedication. Induction was performed 10 min after calves were given an intramuscular dosage of 4 mg/kg of ketamine. Inhalation anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane or sevoflurane in 100% oxygen saturation. Before anesthesia, after induction and at intervals of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 min of anesthesia, the body temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate of the calves were recorded. Additionally, before anesthesia, after induction and at intervals of 15, 30, 45, and 60 min of anesthesia, serum electrolyte (Na+, Ca++, K+, Mg++) and blood gases (pH, pCO2, pO2, HCO3-, TCO2, O2Sat, HCT) were evaluated from blood samples taken from both groups. The second derivation, durations and amplitudes of the P and T waves, the durations and amplitudes of the QRS complex, and the durations of PQ and QT intervals were evaluated on the ECGs recorded before anesthesia, after induction and during anesthesia. Following anesthesia termination, the extubation time and the time it took for straightening of the head and standing up were recorded. Decrease in heart rate and body temperature were found significant in two of the groups. Decrease in respiratory rate compared to initial values after premedication was statistically significant for both groups. However, during anesthesia, an increase occurred. This incresae in respiration rate was not statistically significant compared to initial values. The incease in the values of pCO2, pO2, HCO3 and the decrease in the values of pH and Hct comparing the initial values was found statistically significant in both groups.

Discussion: In ruminants, isoflurane has an induction concentration of 3-5% and an anesthetic concentration of 1.5-3%, while sevoflurane has an induction concentration of 4-6% and an anesthetic concentration of 2.5-4%. In this study, the concentration of isoflurane was 2.3% (2-5) and the of sevoflurane was 4.07% (3-5) for surgery. In the isoflurane group, extubation, straightening of the head and standing up times were 12.40 ± 3.77 min, 20.4 ± 1.57 min, and 30.80 ± 1.89 min, respectively. In the sevoflurane group, extubation, straightening of the head and standing up times were 13.40 ± 4.99, 19.2 ± 1.49, and 28.0 ± 1.83 min, respectively. Although the calves in the isoflurane group were extubated earlier than those of the sevoflurane group, the time elapsed for straightening of the head and standing up were longer than that of the sevoflurane group. The anesthesia protocol provided a smooth anesthetic administration, general anesthesia and awakening. In conclusion, the effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia on the cardiovascular and respiratory system were similar, and although the changes that emerged during anesthesia were statistically significant, it was nonetheless found that the changes were within the physiological limits.


calves; isoflurane; sevoflurane; general anesthesia; hemodynamic effects.

Full Text:



Aida H., Mizuna Y., Hobo S., Yoshida K. & Fujinaga T. 1996. Cardiovascular and pulmonary effects of sevoflurane anesthesia in horses. Veterinary Surgery. 25: 164-170.

AL-Sobayıl F., Ahmed A.F. & El-Tookhy O. 2016. Evaluation of isoflurane anesthesia after xylazine/ketamine administration in dromedary camels. Turkish Journal of Veterinary Animal Sciences. 40: 1-8.

Apaydın N Koç B. 2005. Köpeklerde Isoflurane ve Sevoflurane Anestezisinin Hemodinamik ve Biyokimyasal Parametrelere Olan Etkilerinin Karşılaştırılması, Veteriner Cerrahi Dergisi. 11: 31-35.

Bednarski R.M. & Muir III W.W. 1991. Closed system delivery of halothane and isoflurane with a vaporize in the anesthetics circle. Veterinary Surgery. 20 (5): 353-356.

Brett C.M., Teitel D.F., Heymann M.A. & Rudolph A.M. 1987. The cardiovascular effects of isoflurane in lambs. Anesthesiology. 67: 60-65.

Bold D., Singh K., Gopinathan A., Mohindroo J. & Saini N.S. 2014. Comparative evaluation of halothane and isoflurane maintenance anesthesia in water buffaloes. Journal of Applied Animal Research. 42(3): 269-277.

Cantalapiedra A.G., Villanueva B. & Pereira J.L. 2000. Anaesthetic potency of isoflurane in cattle: Determination of the minimum alveolar concentration. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 27(1): 22-26.

Crystal G.J., Zhou X., Gurevicius J., Czinn E.A., Salem M.R., Alam S., Piotrowski A. & Hu G. 2000. Direct coronary vasomotor effects of sevoflurane and desflurane in in situ canine hearts. Anesthesiology. 292: 1103-1113.

Çeçen G., Topal A., Görgül O.S. & Akgöz S. 2009. The cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane and halothane anesthesia during spontaneous or controlled ventilation in dogs. Veterinary Journal of Ankara University. 56: 255-261.

Doi M., Katoh T., Takii T., Yura M. & Ikeda K. 1987. The respiratory effects of sevoflurane in dogs. Masui. 36: 1053-1057.

Ebert T.J., Harkin C.P. & Muzi M. 1995. Cardiovascular responses to sevoflurane: A review. Veterinary Anaesthesia Analgesia. 81: 11-22.

Frink E.J., Morgan S.E., Coetzee A., Conzen P.F. & Brown B.R. 1992. The effects of sevoflurane, halothane, enflurane and isoflurane on hepatic blood flow and oxygenation in chronically instrumented grey hound dogs. Anesthesiology. 76: 85-90.

Gençcelep M., Atasoy N. & Tas A. 2004. The effects of inhalation anaesthetics (halothane and isoflurane) on certain clinical and haematological parameters of sheep. Small Ruminant Research. 53: 157-160.

Greene S.A., Keegan R.D., Valdez R.A. & Knowles D.K. 2002. Cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane in Holstein calves. Veterinary Anaesthesia Analgesia. 29: 59-63.

Greene S.A., Tyner C.L., Morris D.L. & Hartsfield S.M. 1998. Comparison of cardiopulmonary effects of isoflurane and halothane after atropine-guaifenesine-thiamylal anaesthesia for rumenotomy in steers. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 49(11): 1891-1893.

Güzel Ö. & Perk E.C. 2001. Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac rhythm disorders encountered during the general anaesthesia procedure and intraoperative period in dogs. Journal of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine Istanbul Univarsity. 28(2): 381-401.

Hall L.W., Clarke K.W. & Trim C.M. 2001. Principle of sedation, analgesia and premedication in veterinary anaesthesia. In: Veterinary Anaesthesia. 10th edn. London: WB Saunders, pp.75-112.

Hikasa Y., Hokushini S., Takase K. & Ogasawara S. 2002. Cardiopulmonary, haematological, 12 serum biochemical and behavioural effects of sevoflurane compared with isoflurane or 13 halothane in spontaneously ventilating goats. Small Ruminant Research. 43: 167-178.

Hikasa Y., Kawanabe H., Takase K. & Ogasawara S. 1996. Comparisons of sevoflurane, isoflurane and Halothane anesthesia in spontaneously breathing cats. Veterinary Surgery. 25: 234-243.

Hikasa Y., Okuyama K., Kakuta T., Takase K. & Ogasawara S. 1998. Anesthetic potency and cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane in goats: comparison with isoflurane and halothane. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. 62(4): 299-306.

Hikasa Y., Ohe N., Takase K. & Ogasawara S. 1997. Cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane in cats: comparison with isoflurane, halothane and enflurane. Research in Veterinary Science. 63: 205-210.

Kumandaş A. & Elma E. 2015. Comparison of sevoflurane and isoflurane effects on cardiovascular and respiratory system during spontaneous ventilation in Angora goats. Turkish Journal of Veterinary Animal Sciences. 39: 501-506.

Kushner L.I. & Calvert A.C. 2000. Preanesthetic arrhythmias. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian. 22: 61-73.

Meissner A., Weber T.P., Van Aken H., Zbieranek K. & Rolf N. 2000. Recovery from myocardial stunning is faster with desflurane compared with propofol in chronically instrumented dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia Analgesia. 91: 13331338.

Miller M.S., Tilley L.P. & Smith F.W.K. 1994. Disorders of cardiac rhythm. In: Brichard S.J. & Sherding R.G. (Eds). Saunders Manual of Small Animal Practice. Philadephia: WB Saunders, pp.421-435.

Muir W.W. 2007. Considerations for general anesthesia. In: Thurmon J.C. Tranquilli W.J. & Grimm K.A. (Eds). Lumb Jones Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. 4th edn. Ames: Blackwell, pp.7-30.

Mutoh T., Kanamura A., Suzuki H., Tsubone H., Nıshımura R. & Sasaki N. 2001. Respiratory Reflexes in spontaneously breathing anesthetized dogs in response to nasal adminitration of sevoflurane, isoflurane or halotane. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 62(3): 311-319.

Mutoh T., Nishimura R., Kim H.Y., Matsunaga S. & Sasaki N. 1997. Cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane, compared with halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane, in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 58(8): 885-890.

Pagel P.S., Kampine J.P., Schmeling W.T. & Warltier D.C. 1991. Comparison of the systemic and coronary hemodynamic actions of desflurane, isoflurane, halothane, and enflurane in the chronically instrumented dog. Anesthesiology. 74(3): 539-551.

Pamuk K. 2003. Köpeklerde Halotan ve izofloran anestezisinin intraoküler basınca etkisinin karsılaştırılması. 70p. Doktora tezi (Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü), Ankara Üniversitesi, Türkiye.

Reibold T.W. 2015. Ruminants. In: Grimm KA, Lamont LA, Tranquilli WJ, Greene S.A. & Robertson S.A. (Eds). Lumb Jones Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. 5th edn. Ames: Blackwell, pp.912-927.

Schieber R.A., Namnoum A., Sudgen A., Shio G.K., Orr R.A. & Cook D.R. 1986. Haemodynamic effects of isoflurane in the new born piglet: comparison with halothane. Veterinary Anaesthesia Analgesia. 65(6): 633-638.

Schulze I., Poos E.M., Meyer H., List A.K., Kaestner S.B.R. & Rhege J. 2016. Effects of preoperative carprofen on cardio-respiratory, hormonal and metabolic stress response in calves during umbilical surgery under isoflurane inhalation anaesthesia. The Veterinary Journal. 216: 18-24.

Seeler D.C., Dodman N.H., Norman W.M. & Court M.H. 1987. İntraoperativ cardiac dysrhythmias and their treatment. British Veterinary Journal. 143: 97-111.

Sellers G., Lin H.C., Chamorro M.F. & Walz P.H. 2013. Comparison of isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia in holstein calves for placement of portal and jugular vein cannulus. American Journal of Animal Veterinary Science. 8(1): 1-7.

Skarda R.T., Bednarski R.M., Muir W.W. & Hubbell J.A.E. 1995. Inhalation Anesthesia. Handbook of Veterinary Anesthesia. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, pp.133-141.

Steffey E.P. & Howland D. 1977. Isoflurane potency in the dog and cat. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 38: 1833-1836.

Steffey E.P. & Howland D. 1979. Halothane anaesthesia in calves. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 40: 372-376.

Steffey E.P., Kelly A.B. & Woliner M.J. 1987. Time- related responses of spontaneously breathing, laterally recumbent horses to prolonged anaesthesia with halothane. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 48: 1646-1648.

Steffey P.E. & Mama K.R. 2007. Inhalation anesthetics. In: Thurmon J.C. Tranquilli W.J. & Grimm K.A. (Eds). Lumb Jones Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. 4th edn. Ames: Blackwell, pp.355-93.

Topal A. 2005. Veteriner Anestezi. Bursa: Nobel & Güneş, pp.107-128.

Vessal N., Spadavecchia C., Steiner A., Kirscher F. & Levionnois O.L. 2011. Evaluation of the isoflurane-sparing effects of lidocaine infusion during umbilical surgery in calves. Veterinary Anaestesia and Analgesia. 38: 451-460.


Copyright (c) 2018 Rahime Yaygingul, Ali Belge, Ibrahim Akin, Cengiz Unsal, Osman Bulut, Nuh Kilic

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.