Changes in Somatic Cell Count, Composition and Cytokine Levels in Milk from Cows with Mastitis Due to Mixed Infections

Tarik Safak, Ali Risvanli

Abstract


Background: Mastitis is a mammary gland inflammation that is very common worldwide, mostly caused by bacteria, and causes enormous economic losses. Many microorganisms cause this disease. The most common causes of mastitis by these microorganisms are Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae). The anti-inflammatory properties of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β include: 1) limiting interferon (IFN)-γ production; 2) increasing the expression of the ınterleukine (IL)-1 receptor antagonist; 3) inhibiting macrophage production of chemokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen intermediates; and 4) increasing macrophage clearance of bacterial debris and damaged parenchymal cells. It is stated that cytokines and milk composition change in case of mastitis. In this study, it was aimed to reveal the changes in milk TGF-β1 and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentrations and milk composition in mixed infections caused by three pathogens causing mastitis.

Materials, Methods & Results: In this study, milk samples from 90 cows were divided into 5 groups. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and TGF-β1 concentrations and milk composition were determined in these milk samples. The California Mastitis Test (CMT) was applied to the cows included in the study and scoring was done. According to the CMT results of the milk samples taken, CMT(-) cows were included in group 1 (n = 22). Those with the CMT(+) were taken to the microbiology laboratory for analysis within 2 h. After the bacteria was determined, combination groupings were formed. Group 2 (n = 17) with S. aureus and E. coli, group 3 (n = 21), S. agalactiae with S. aureus, S. agalactiae and E. coli together, group 4 (n = 8) and CMT (+) but no bacterial growth formed group 5 (n = 22).

Somatic cell counts were made in the milk samples taken from the cows belonging to the groupings. Somatic cell count was measured with the DeLaval Cell Counter® (Cell Counter DCC) device. Mineral matter, fat, protein, lactose, electrical conductivity and specific gravity were measured in milk samples using Lactoscan Milk Analyzer (Milkotronic/EUROPE). Milk samples were then stored at -80°C to measure TGF-β1 and TNF-α. Tumor necrosis factor-α and TGF-β1 concentrations in milk samples were measured using ELISA kits (Sunred Biological Technology).

Discussion: Changes in milk TNF-α and TGF-β1 concentration and milk composition were determined in milk samples with mastitis caused by mixed infection. The TNF-α concentration of group 4 was higher than the other groups. On the other hand, the highest concentration of TGF-β1 was found in group 2. While the number of somatic cells in group 1 was lower than in groups 2, 3, and 4, there was no statistical difference between groups 1 and 5. The lowest milk fat ratio was found in group 1, and it was found to be statistically lower than groups 2, 3, and 4. While the rate of solid-non-fat of group 1 increased compared to groups 2 and 3, the highest protein ratio was found in groups 1 and 5. There was no difference between the 5 groups in terms of mineral matter ratios. While the specific gravity was highest in group 1, there was no statistical difference between the other 4 groups. Overall, it was concluded that there was an increase in TNF-α and TGF-β1 concentrations and a change in milk composition in samples with bacterial growth.

Keywords: bovine mastitis, cytokine, milk composition, raw milk, transforming growth factor.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Alam S., Zaman M.A., Roy S., Ahmed J., Das M., Monzur K.C.Q.M., Deb Proma S. & Popy F.Y. 2018. Evaluation of physio-chemical properties of locally produced raw milk in sylhet city corporation area, Bangladesh. Asian Food Science Journal. 3: 1-6. DOI: 10.9734/AFSJ/2018/42679

Bannerman D.D. 2009. Pathogen-dependent induction of cytokines and other soluble inflammatory mediators during intramammary infection of dairy cows. Journal of Animal Science. 87: 10-25. DOI: 10.2527/jas.2008-1187

Bannerman D.D., Chockalingam A., Paape M.J. & Hope J.C. 2005. The bovine innate immune response during experimentally-induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 107: 201-215. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2005.04.012

Bannerman D.D., Paape M.J., Lee J.W., Zhao X., Hope J.C. & Rainard P. 2004. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus elicit differential innate immune responses following intramammary infection. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 11: 463-472. DOI: 10.1128/CDLI.11.3.463-472.2004

Boas D.F.V., Vercesi Filho A.E., Pereira M.A., Roma Jr. L.C. & Faro L. 2017. Association between electrical conductivity and milk production traits in dairy Gyr cows. Journal of Applied Animal Research. 45(1): 227-233. DOI: 10.1080/09712119.2016.1150849

Burvenich C., Van Merris V., Mehrzad J., Diez-Fraile A. & Duchateau L. 2003. Severity of Escherichia coli mastitis is mainly determined by cow factors. Veterinary Research. 34(5): 521-564. DOI: 10.1051/vetres:2003023

Can-Sahna K. & Risvanli A. 2015. Th1/Th2 cytokine balance and SOCS3 levels of female offspring born from rats with gestational diabetes mellitus. Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 21: 837-840. DOI: 10.9775/kvfd.2015.13723

Chockalingam A., Paape M.J. & Bannerman D.D. 2005. Increased milk levels of Transforming Growth Factor-α, β1, and β2 during Escherichia coli-induced mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science. 88(6): 1986-1993. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72874-5

Fox L.K. 2009. Prevalence, incidence and risk factors of heifer mastitis. Veterinary Microbiology. 134(1-2): 82-88. DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.09.005

Halasa T., Huijps K., Osteras O. & Hogeveen H. 2007. Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: a review. The Veterinary Quarterly. 29: 18-31. DOI: 10.1080/01652176.2007.9695224

Hogan J.S., Gonzáles R.N., Harmon R.J., Nickerson C., Oliver P., Pankey W. & Smith L. 1999. Harmon Laboratory Handbook on Bovine Mastitis. Madison: National Mastitis Council, pp.23-68.

Jin Y., Cox D.A., Knecht R., Raschdorf F. & Cerletti N. 1991. Separation, purification, and sequence identification of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta 2 from bovine milk. Journal of Protein Chemistry. 10: 565-575. DOI: 10.1007/BF01025484

Kasikci G., Cetin O., Bingol E.B. & Gündüz M.C. 2012. Relations between electrical conductivity, somatic cell count, California mastitis test and some quality parameters in the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 36(1): 49-55. DOI: 10.3906/vet-1103-4

Keefe G. 2012. Update on control of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae for management of mastitis. The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice. 28(2): 203-216. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvfa.2012.03.010

Kul E., Sahin A., Atasever S., Ugurlutepe E. & Soydaner M. 2019. The effects of somatic cell count on milk yield and milk composition in Holstein cows. Veterinarski Arhiv. 89(2): 143-154. DOI: 10.24099/vet.arhiv.0168

Kuplulu S., Vural R., Izgur H., Kilicoglu C., Bastan A., Kaymaz M. & Erdeger J. 1995. The use of milk checker in detecting subclinical mastitis. Ankara Universitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 42(3): 281-284

Lindmark-Mansson H., Bränning C., Aldén G. & Paulsson M. 2006. Relationship between somatic cell count, individual leukocyte populations and milk components in bovine udder quarter milk. International Dairy Journal. 16(7): 717-727. DOI: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2005.07.003

Malek C.B., Barreiro J.R., Mestieri L., Porcionato M.F. & Santos M.V. 2013. Effect of somatic cell count and mastitis pathogens on milk composition in Gyr cows. BMC Veterinary Research. 9(67): 1-7. DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-9-67

Norberg E., Hogeveen H., Korsgaard I.R., Friggens N.C., Sloth K.H.M. & Løvendahl P. 2004. Electrical conductivity of milk: ability to predict mastitis status. Journal of Dairy Science. 78(4): 1099-1107. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73256-7

Panda B.S.K., Mohapatra S.K., Alhussien M.N. & Dang A.K. 2019. Amount of milk neutrophil percentage and associated CD molecular changes on the compositional and technological properties of milk. The Open Biotechnology Journal. 13(1): 129-136.

Pecka-Kielb E., Vasil M., Zachwieja A., Zawadzki W., Elecko J., Zigo F., Illek J. & Farkasová Z. 2016. An effect of mammary gland infection caused by Streptococcus uberis on composition and physicochemical changes of cows’ milk. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 19: 49-55. DOI: 10.1515/pjvs-2016-0007

Plaut K., Dean A.J., Patnode T.A. & Casey T.M. 2003. Effect of Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) on mammary development. Journal of Dairy Science. 86: 16-27. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)74036-3

Rainard P. & Riollet C. 2006. Innate immunity of the bovine mammary gland. Veterinary Research. 37: 369-400. DOI: 10.1051/vetres:2006007

Shaheen T., Sheikh B.A., Rehman M.U., Muzami S., Bhat R.R., Hussain I., Bashir N., Rahman Mir M., Paray B.A. & Dawood M.A.O. 2020. Investigations on cytokines and proteins in lactating cows with and without naturally occurring mastitis. Journal of King Saud University. 32(6): 2863-2867. DOI: 10.1016/j.jksus.2020.07.009

Slebodzinski A.B., Malinowski E. & Lipczak W. 2002. Concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in milk from healthy and naturally infected quarters of cows. Research in Veterinary Science. 72: 17-21. DOI: 10.1053/rvsc.2001.0514

Sordillo L.M. 2005. Factors affecting mammary gland immunity and mastitis susceptibility. Livestock Production Science. 98: 89-99. DOI: 10.1016/j.livprodsci.2005.10.017

Sordillo L.M. 2018. Mammary gland immunobiology and resistance to mastitis. The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice. 34: 507-523. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvfa.2018.07.005

Vasil M., Pecka-Kielb E., Elecko J., Zachwieja A., Zawadzki W., Zigo F., Illek J. & Farkasová Z. 2016. Effects of udder infections with Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus warneri on the composition and physicochemical changes in cows milk. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 19(4): 841-848. DOI: 10.1515/pjvs-2016-0105




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.117149

Copyright (c) 2021 Tarik SAFAK, Ali RISVANLI

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.