New Technique for Intrathoracic Implantation of Extraluminal Spiral Prostheses in the Trachea

Hércules Lúcio Gomes, Rodiney Pinheiro Denevitz, Isabella Cristina Morales, Scarlath Ohana Penna dos Santos, Haroldo José Siqueira da Igreja Júnior, Marcelo Borges dos Santos Júnior, Tainara Micaele Bezerra Peixoto, Jussara Peters Scheffer, Fernanda Antunes, André Lacerda de Abreu Oliveira


Background: Extraluminal surgical procedures for intrathoracic tracheal collapse in dogs are not routinely performed. The patients are normally treated with different drugs or by intraluminal stents. However, in more severe cases, drug treatment does not always have good outcomes, and intraluminal prostheses can be correlated to several postoperative problems. In order to obtain better results, we aimed to develop a surgical technique for implantation of a new extraluminal helical prosthesis in the thoracic segment of the trachea through cervical access, associated with pneumatic mediastinoscopy for certification of the technique and minimization of possible complications.

Materials, Methods & Results: Seven canine corpses (CCs) from non-traumatic death, weighing between 2 and 7 kg, were used. A ventral cervical approach to the trachea was associated with blunt mediastinal dissection. Trans cervical pneumatic mediastinoscopy was used for evaluation of the dissection and location of the implant. These were compared with the necropsy findings by the exact Wilcoxon two-sample test, with P < 0.05. The results of necropsy and mediastinoscopy did not present significant differences at P < 0.05. During the examinations, the presence of some mediastinal visceral lesions caused by the prosthesis, the integrity of the mediastinum and possible lesions to RLN and blood vessels (BV) were analyzed. We also investigated the location of the distal part of the prosthesis in the thoracic segment of the trachea and its dissection. To evaluate the technique, statistical comparison was made between mediastinoscopy and necropsy findings. The data were compared by the Wilcoxon test at 5% probability. The tracheas of all CCs were efficiently dissected, but in some cases problems that can happen during the procedure were noticed. This was checked by mediastinoscopy and confirmed by necropsy. The median of the scores was 1 (good dissection and visualization), with variance of zero for mediastinoscopy and 0.14 for necropsy. In the mediastinoscopy of one CC, the prosthesis crossed the tracheal bifurcation, involving the posterior vessels of this region, which was confirmed by necropsy. However, the dissection showed no vascular lesions. The integrity of the mediastinum was assessed only by mediastinoscopy. There was no impairment caused by any of the procedures performed. This resulted in a median score of 1 (integrity) with zero variance. When the positioning of the prosthesis was evaluated in relation to the tracheal bifurcation, identical values were obtained by both methods. The median score was 1, with variance of 0.62. No statistical differences were found between the two evaluation methods for the analyzed variables. This demonstrates the strong potential of the proposed evaluation techniques.

Discussion: Our results show that the execution of the technique is possible, but some complications may occur. Mediastinoscopy as an evaluation procedure can pose some complications, these considerations are important, but by using technique proposed in this study, these factors are minimized due to the ease of technical implantation of the extraluminal tracheal stent, without the need for several instruments competing in the inflated mediastinal space. We concluded that the technique is viable and a safe method with minimal invasion for investigation and treatment of mediastinal diseases, presenting low impairment of the paratracheal structures, and that mediastinoscopy can be used as a transoperative evaluation method to minimize complications.

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Copyright (c) 2021 Hércules Lúcio Gomes, Rodiney Pinheiro Denevitz, Scarlath Ohana Penna dos Santos, Haroldo José Da Siqueira Igreja Júnior, Marcelo Borges dos Santos Júnior, Tainara Micaele Bezerra Peixoto, Isabella Cristina Morales, Jussara Peters Scheffer, Fernanda Antunes, André Lacerda de Abreu Oliveira

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