Ocular Biometry and its Relationship with Body Size and Head in French Bulldog Dogs

Rayssa Dias Faleiro, Daniel de Almeida Balthazar, Isabela Pessôa Barbieri Bastos, Andrea Kuner, Francis Arthur Seco Prando, Mário dos Santos Filho, Jorge da Silva Pereira

Abstract


Background: Ocular biometrics is an easy to perform, safe, non-invasive and low-cost exam that provides immediate results with excellent definition. Brachycephalic dogs have a high risk of developing eye problems, and the early appearance is frequent due to factors linked to anatomical conformation. The aim of the present study was to perform eye biometrics in French Bulldog dogs through ultrasound, correlating with body and head size.

Materials, Methods & Results: Clinical examination, ophthalmic examination and ocular biometrics were performed using B-mode ultrasonography, using a 10 megahertz frequency transducer in 30 French Bulldog dogs, aged 1-6 years old, male and females from the Br Lord's Staff kennel and the Radiovet - Rio de Janeiro veterinary clinic. A drop of anesthetic eye drops containing 1% tetracaine hydrochloride and 0.1% phenylephrine hydrochloride was instilled and the direct contact technique was performed with the cornea with the help of sterile water-soluble lubricating acoustic gel between the transducer and the examined eye. These measurements were correlated with cephalic measurements (frontal-occipital distance, skull circumference, distance between the zygomatic arches and frontal-nasal distance) and with body measurements (length of the dog from the cranial end of the sternum to the ischial tuberosity and height of the withers from the cranial angle of the scapula to the ground). No chemical restraint was necessary. Dogs were positioned seated or in sternal decubitus, with slight physical restraint. All measurements were performed by the same examiner. There was no significant difference between the parameters of male and female eye biometrics and there was no difference between the measurements of the right and left eyes. The mean value of axial bulb length was 19.51 ± 0.58 mm, for the thickness of the lens, 6.71 ± 0.66 mm, for depth of the anterior chamber, 2.36 ± 0.89 mm and for the depth of the vitreous chamber, 10.44 ± 1.32 mm, showing the same pattern as other studies with brachycephalic dogs. The size of the dog or skull did not interfere with the measurements of eye biometrics.

Discussion: The French Bulldog breed was selected for this study due to the scarcity of publications on ocular biometrics in brachycephalic breeds.The knowledge of ocular biometrics is extremely important for the understanding and early diagnosis of some anomalies related to the growth of ocular structures. It is an essential method of exploration and diagnosis of diseases of the eye bulb and orbit, being indicated to evaluate variations in size, shape and position of the eye bulb. The casuistry of these dogs with eye diseases in the ophthalmological clinical routine is large, since they have a high risk of developing eye problems. Ultrasonography is an easy to access and safe, non-invasive exam and the direct corneal contact technique allows clearer images. As there was no significant difference in measurements of intraocular structures between the right and left eyes, the normal eye can be a reliable parameter to establish the prosthetic eye bulb for the injured or enucleated eye. In the present study, there were 21 females and 9 males, which may have generated interference in these values since there was no sex ratio. The measurements of axial length, lenticular thickness, depth of the anterior chamber and the vitreous chamber had values similar to other studies with brachycephalic dogs.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Beserra P.S., Sales G.A., Santana E.J.M., Miranda S.M., Brito A.B., Nickolak E. & Domingues S.F.S. 2009. Relação entre a biometria ultra-sonográfica em modo-B do bulbo ocular e os diâmetros fronto-occipital e bizigomático em Canis familiaris. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 29(4): 286-290. DOI: 10.1590/S0100-736X2009000400002

Boroffka S.A.E.B., Voorhout G., Verbruggen A.M. & Teske E. 2006. Intraobserver and interobserver repeatability of ocular biometric measurements obtained by means of B-mode ultrasonography in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 67(10): 1743-1749. DOI: 10.2460 / ajvr.67.10.1743

Carvalho C.F. 2004. Ultra-sonografia ocular. In: Carvalho C.F. (Ed). Ultra-Sonografia de Pequenos Animais. São Paulo: Roca, pp.253-264.

• 4 Cottrill N.B., Banks W.J. & Pechman R.D. 1989. Ultrasonographic and biometric evaluation of the eye and orbit of dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 50(6): 898- 903.

• 5 Dietrich U.M. 2013. Diagnostic ultrasonography. In: Gelatt K.N., Gilger B.C. & Kern T.J. (Eds). Veterinary Ophthalmology. 5th edn. Gainesville: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 669-683.

• 6 Dietrich U.M. 2007. Diagnostic ultrasonography. In: Gelatt K.N. (Ed). Veterinary ophthalmology. 4th edn. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, pp.507-519.

• 7 Gonçalves G.F., Pippi N.L., Raiser A.G., Mazzanti A., Oliveira S.T., Neves J.P., Leotte A.M. & Hintz C.W. 2000. Biometria ultra-sonográfica bidimensional em tempo real do globo ocular de cães. Ciência Rural. 30(3): 417-420. DOI: 10.1590 / S0103-84782000000300007

• 8 González E.M., Rodriguez A. & García I. 2001. Review of ocular ultrasonography. Veterinary Radiology Ultrasound. 42(6): 485-495. DOI:10.1111/j.1740-8261.2001.tb00975.x

• 9 Hager D.A., Dziezyc J. & Millchamp N.J. 1987. Two-dimensional real-time ocular ultrasonography in the dog technique and normal anatomy. Veterinary Radiology. 28(4): 60-65. DOI:10.1111/j.1740-8261.1987.tb01726.x

• 10 Hernández-Guerra A.M. & López-Murcia M.M. 2007. Ocular biometry in the adult an*esthetized ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Veterinary Ophthalmology. 10(1): 50-52. DOI:10.1111/j.1463-5224.2007.00500.x

• 11 Hijar M.V. 2008. Ultra-sonografia ocular. In: Herrera D. (Ed). Oftalmologia Clínica em Animais de Companhia. São Paulo: Medvet, pp.49-62.

• 12 Larsen J.S. 2009. Axial lenghtof the emmetropic eye and its relation to the head size. Acta Ophthalmologica. 57(1): 76-8. DOI: 10.1111 / j.1463-5224.2007.00500

• 13 Maggs D.J. 2008. Basic Diagnostic Techniques. In: Maggs D.J, Miller P. & Ofri R. (Eds). Fundamentals of Veterinary Ophthalmology. 4th edn. St.Louis: Saunders, pp.81-106.

• 14 Matton J.S. & Nyland T.G. 2015. Eye. In: Matton J.S. & Nyland T.G. (Eds). Small Animal Diagnostic Ultrasound. 3rd edn. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, pp.1- 49.

• 15 Matton J.S. & Nyland T.G. 2005. Olho. In: Matton J.S. & Nyland T.G. (Eds). Ultrasom Diagnóstico em Pequenos Animais. 2.ed. São Paulo: Editora Roca, pp.315-336.

• 16 Matton J.S. & Nyland T.G. 1995. Ocular ultrasonography. In: Matton J.S. & Nyland, T.G. (Eds). Veterinary Diagnostic Ultrasound. Philadelphia: Saunders, pp.305-324.

• 17 McMullen Jr. R.J. & Gilger B.C. 2006. Keratometry, biometry and prediction of intraocular lens power in the equine eye. Veterinary Ophthalmology. 9(5): 357-360. DOI:10.1111/j.1463-5224.2006.00493.x

• 18 Osuobeni E.P. & Hamidzada W.A. 1999. Agreement between A-mode and B-mode ultrasonography in the measurement of ocular distances. Veterinary Radiology Ultrasound. 40(5):502-507. DOI: 10.1111 / j.1740-8261.1999.tb00382.x

• 19 Ribeiro A.P., Silva M.L., Rosa J.P., Souza S.F., Teixeira I.A.M.A. & Laus J.L. 2009. Ultrasonographic and echobiometric findings in the eyes of Saanen goats of different ages. Veterinary Ophthalmology. 12(5): 313-317. DOI:10.1111/j.1463-5224.2009.00719.x

• 20 Schiffer S.P., Rantanem N.W., Leary C.A. & Bryan G.M. 1982. Biometric study of the canine eye, using A-mode ultrasonogralhy. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 43(5): 826-830.

• 21 Soares A.M.B., Laus J.L., Provensano J., Ayres B., Willward C. & Galera P.D. 2004. Refração ocular por retinoscopia em faixa em cães da raça Fila Brasileiro. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária. 11(1/2):104-108. DOI: 10.4522/rbcv.2014.354

• 22 Spaulding K. 2011. Olho e Órbita. In: Penninck D. & D`Anjou M. (Eds). Atlas de Ultrassonografia de Pequenos Animais. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, pp.47-88.

• 23 Squarzoni R. 2011. Biometria ocular e sua relação com sexo, idade, tamanho e peso em cães da raça Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. 95f. São Paulo, SP. Tese (Doutorado em Clínica Cirúrgica Veterinária) - Programa de Pós-Graduação em Clínica Cirúrgica Veterinária da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo-SP. 24 Toni M.C., Meirelles A.E.W.B., Gava F.N., Camacho A.A., Laus J.L. & Canola J.C. 2011. Rabbits’ eye globe sonographic biometry. Veterinary Ophthalmology. 13(16): 384-386. DOI:10.1111/j.1463-5224.2010.00831.x

• 25 Williams D.L. 2004. Lens morphometry determined by B-mode ultrasonography of the normal and cataractous canine lens. Veterinary Ophthalmology. 7(2): 91-95. DOI:10.1111/j.1463-5224.2004.04005.x

• 26 Williams J. & Wilkie D.A. 1996. Ultrasonography of the eye. Compendium of Continuing Education in Veterinary Medicine. 18: 667-676.

• 27 Wilkie D.A., Gemensky-Metzler A.J., Colitz C.M.H., Bras I.D., Kuonen K., Norris N. & Bashmam C.R. 2006. Canine cataracts, diabetes mellitus and spontaneous lens rupture: a retrospective study of 18 dogs. Veterinary Ophthalmology. 9(5): 328-334. DOI:10.1111/j.1463-5224.2006.00490.x




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.108955

Copyright (c) 2021 Rayssa Dias Faleiro

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.