Analysis of the Performance of the Animal Health Surveillance System in the Outbreak of Swine Vesicular Disease in the State of Santa Catarina - Brazil

Dahianne Leia Becker, Janice Reis Ciacci Zanella, Luis Gustavo Corbellini, Mauro Riegert Borba

Abstract


Background: The occurrence of vesicular disease associated with Senecavirus A in a pig-producing region of Santa Catarina increased in 2015, reflected by the number of syndromic notifications to the official animal health service. In view of the recurrence of this event in 2018, the objectives of this study were to analyze the official data related to cases of suspected vesicular disease in pigs and to evaluate whether the experience in conducting the investigations of 2015 was incorporated into the years subsequent to 2015. We addressed this goal by analysis of the performance parameters of the state animal health surveillance system.

Materials, Methods & Results: Descriptive analyses of data from official investigations of suspected vesicular disease in swine in different regions were carried out, and statistical models were used to: i) test the effect of the year on the age of the investigated injuries; ii) assess whether there was an association between the year and the type of outcome of the official investigation (discarded case or a probable case of vesicular disease, which resulted in the collection of samples for laboratory diagnosis and interdiction of the affected properties); iii) evaluate whether there was an association between the year and the detection of Senecavirus A RNA among the molecular analyses carried out after a case was classified as probable vesicular disease. From 05/22/2015 to 03/28/2019, there were 2093 notifications of suspected vesicular disease in pigs to the official service of Santa Catarina, with 1538 (73.5%) occurring in 2015 and 555 (26.5%) in subsequent years. After 2015, when compared to the base year, the chances of detecting late vesicular lesions (>3 days) were similar (increased 1.11 times, but there was no statistically significant association), in view of a panorama in which 55.29% of cases had the lesions classified as late throughout the analyzed period. The variation in the odds was relatively homogeneous among the regional units (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] = 10.9%), but in the São Miguel do Oeste unit, it was significantly lower than the average. It was also lower than the average, in regional units with a high ratio of properties with pigs attended by the official veterinarian. The chances of cases being considered probable increased 32.3 times, but the descriptive analysis of the average interdiction period decreased. The estimated ICC was 34.9%, and in Campos Novos and Caçador, the chances of cases being probable were significantly higher than the average, while in the Canoinhas unit, the chances were significantly lower. The prevalence of cases with molecular detection of Senecavirus A was 78% lower after 2015. 

Discussion: Despite the increased sensitivity of the surveillance process for suspected vesicular events in the years after 2015, the specificity of the molecular diagnosis of Senecavirus A decreased. This is likely, because there was difficulty in sampling lesions with vesicular fluid and/or when the lesion epithelium had recently been disrupted, conditions most conducive to the identification of viral genetic material. In this context, the western region of the state, the main pig producer, continued to be the most accurate in confirming cases of Senecavirus A. Even with the improvements of laboratory diagnosis and the reduction of the interdiction period, it was important to standardize the differentiation of a late infectious lesion from a traumatic injury, as well as any association with other sample analyses, in order to minimize the disorders linked to the mischaracterization of a manifestation of Senecavirus A, without compromising the syndromic focus of its vesicular character.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Associação Brasileira de Proteína Animal (ABPA). 2019. Relatório Anual 2018. Disponível em: . [Accessed online in July 2019].

Buckley A., Kulshreshtha V., Geelen A., Montiel N., Guo B., Yoon K.J. & Lager K. 2019. Experimental Seneca Valley virus infection in market-weight gilts. Veterinary Microbiology. 231(4): 7-10.

Chen Z., Yuan F., Li Y., Shang P., Schroeder R., Lechtenberg K., Henningson J., Hause B., Bai J., Rowland R.R.R., Clavijo A. & Fang Y. 2016. Construction and characterization of a full-length cDNA infectious clone of emerging porcine Senecavirus A. Virology. 497(10): 111-124.

Companhia Integrada de Desenvolvimento Agrícola de Santa Catarina (CIDASC). 2019. Boletim Epidemiológico DEDSA - Nº 001 - 2019 (Vol. 3). Análise das notificações de síndromes do SivCont. Ano de 2018 (Jan-Dez). Disponível em: . [Accessed online in May 2019].

Dall Agnol A.M., Otonel R.A., Leme R.A., Alfieri A.A. & Alfieri A.F. 2017. A TaqMan-based qRT-PCR assay for Senecavirus A detection in tissue samples of neonatal piglets. Molecular and Cellular Probes. 33(6): 1-4.

Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina (EPAGRI). 2019. Síntese Anual da Agricultura de Santa Catarina 2017-2018. Disponível em: . [Accessed online in April 2019].

Fernandes M.H.V., Maggioli M.F., Joshi L.R., Clement T., Faccin T.C, Rauh R., Bauermann F.V. & Diel D.G. 2018. Pathogenicity and cross-reactive immune responses of a historical and a contemporary Senecavirus A strains in pigs. Virology. 522(9): 147-157.

Gimenez-Lirola L.G., Rademacher C., Linhares D., Harmon K., Rotolo M., Sun Y., Baum D.H., Zimmerman J. & Piñeyro P. 2016. Serological and molecular detection of Senecavirus A associated with an outbreak of swine idiopathic vesicular disease and neonatal mortality. Journal of General Virology. 54(8): 2082-2089.

Guo B., Pineyro P.E., Rademacher C.J., Zheng Y., Li G., Yuan J., Hoang H., Gauger P.C., Madson D.M., Schwartz K.J., Canning P.E., Arruda B.L., Cooper V.L., Baum D.H., Linhares D.C., Main R.G. & Yoon K.J. 2016. Novel Senecavirus A in swine with vesicular disease, United States, July 2015. Emerging Infection Disease. 22(7): 1325-1327.

Hole K., Ambagala T. & Nfon C. 2019. Vesicular disease in pigs inoculated with a recent Canadian isolate of Senecavirus A. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. 84(4): 242-247.

Joshi L.R., Fernandes M.H., Clement T., Lawson S., Pillatzki A., Resende T.P., Vanucci F.A., Kutish G.F., Nelson E.A. & Diel D.G. 2016. Pathogenesis of Senecavirus A infection in finishing pigs. Journal of General Virology. 97(12): 3267-3279.

Laguardia-Nascimento M., Gasparini M.R., Sales E.B., Rivetti A.V.Jr., Sousa N.M., Oliveira A.M., Camargos M.F., Oliveira T.F.P., Gonçalves J.P.M., Madureira M.C., Ribeiro D.P., Marcondes I.V., Barbosa-Stancioli E.F. & Fonseca Jr. A.A. 2016. Molecular epidemiology of Senecavirus A associated with vesicular disease in pigs in Brazil. The Veterinary Journal. 216(10): 207-209.

Leme R.A., Myiabe F.M., Dall Agnol A.M., Alfieri A.F. & Alfieri A.A. 2019. A new wave of Seneca Valley Virus outbreaks in Brazil. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 66(3): 1101-1104.

Leme R.A., Alfieri A.F. & Alfieri A.A. 2017. Update on Senecavirus infection in pigs. Viruses. 9(7): 170.

Leme R.A., Zotti E., Alcântara B.K., Oliveira M.V., Freitas L.A. & Alfieri A.F. 2015. Senecavirus A: An emerging vesicular infection in Brazilian pig herds. Transboundary and Emerging Disease. 62(6): 603-611.

Maggioli M.F., Lawson S., de Lima M., Joshi L.R., Faccin T.C., Bauermann F.V. & Diel D.G. 2017. Adaptive immune responses following Senecavirus A infection in pigs. Journal of Virology. 92(3): DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01717-17

McLaws M., Ribble C., Martin W. & Wilesmith J. 2009. Factors associated with the early detection of foot-and-mouth-disease during the 2001 epidemic in the United Kingdom. Canadian Veterinary Journal. 50(1): 53-60.

Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. 2009. Plano de Ação para Febre Aftosa - Atendimento à Notificação de Suspeita de Doença Vesicular. V.1. Brasília: MAPA, 96p.

Montiel N., Buckley A., Guo B., Kulshreshtha V., VanGeelen A., Hoang H., Rademacher C., Yoon K.J. & Lager K. 2016. Vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs experimentally infected with Senecavirus A. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 22(7): 1246-1248.

Organização Mundial da Saúde Animal (OIE). 2019. Sanidade animal no mundo. Status sanitário oficial. Febre aftosa. Disponível em: . [Accessed online in January 2019].

Saporiti V., Fritzen J.T.T., Feronato C., Leme R.A., Lobato Z.I.P., Alfieri A.F. & Alfieri A.A. 2017. A ten years (2007-2016) retrospective serological survey for Seneca Valley virus infection in major pig producing states of Brazil. Veterinary Research Communications. 41(4): 317-321.

Segalés J., Barcellos D., Alfieri A., Burrough E. & Marthaler D. 2017 Senecavirus A: An Emerging Pathogen Causing Vesicular Disease and Mortality in Pigs? Veterinary Pathology. 54(1): 11-21.

United States Health Association (USAHA). 2012. Committe on transmissible diseases of swine - research on Seneca Valley Virus. Disponível em: . [Accessed online in June 2018].

Vannucci F.A., Linhares D.C., Barcellos D.E., Lam H.C., Collins J. & Marthaler D. 2015. Identification and complete genome of Seneca Valley virus in vesicular fluid and sera of pigs affected with idiopatic vesicular disease, Brazil. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 62(6): 589-593.

LEGENDAS Figuras

Figura 1. Representação do fluxo de atendimento à notificação de suspeitas de doenças vesiculares pelo serviço veterinário oficial do Brasil.

Figura 2. Distribuição geográfica de propriedades investigadas e não descartadas para doença vesicular conforme resultados sorológico e molecular para o Senecavirus A, no período de 2015 à 2019, em Santa Catarina.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.103772

Copyright (c) 2020 Dahianne Leia Becker, Janice Reis Ciacci Zanella, Luis Gustavo Corbellini, Mauro Riegert Borba

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.